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Full text of "PROFILES - Volume 3 Number 2 (1985-09)(Kaypro Corp)(US)"

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2400 bps modems: 
Do you Really need 

• Is the shift from 300 to 1 200 bps going to repeat itself 
at 2400 bps? The answer is both yes and no. There 
certainly are applications for 2400 bps asynch dial-up 
modems, but we shouldn't expect 1200 bps to die 

• 2400 bps modems can improve throughput, thereby 
getting tasks done quicker and more economically. 
However, 1200 bps has become the virtual standard for 
professional dial-up communications, and most users 
are satisfied with it. So why consider a 2400 bps modem 
at all? 

• One reason is flexibility. If the modem you select 
operates at all three speeds (300, 1200 & 2400) in 
accordance with accepted industry standards, it will 
serve virtually all dial-up and in the 
foreseeable future. 

• The modem you select should be the 
MultiModem224. It is Bell 21 2A and 103 compatible at 
1200 and 300 bps, and CCITT V.22bis compatible at 
2400. It is also 1 00% compatible with the Hayes 
command set, meaning that it will work with virtually all 
communications software packages, at all three speeds. 
Other features include both synchronous and 
asynchronous operation, full intelligence and a phone 
number memory. 

• The MultiModem224 is available in both desktop and 
IBM PC™ internal card versions. (There is also a rack- 
mounted version for central sites.) And as a bonus, we 
provide free offers from ten of the most popular on-line 
information services, including CompuServe™ Dow 
Jones™ and The Source™ 

• A 2400/1200/300 bps modem is just a plain good 
investment. Why not let the MultiModem224 provide your 
communications for both today and tomorrow? 


Systems ^Qr 

The right answer every time. 

82 Second Ave. S E„ New Brighton, MN 551 12 (612) 631 -3550, TWX: 910-563-3610 

Multi # 

Multi Modem 224 

2400/1200/300 BPS Intelligent Modem 




256 to 512 Memory Upgrade Kit . , $69.95 

5 1 2 to 640 Memory Upgrade Kit $CAIX 

Improved Character ROM: Clear, easy to read new Character Set $29.95 

TLC Lisp — with turtle graphics $250.00 

[aypro 1, 2X, 2-84, 4-84, 10 

M-PC type external monitor adapter, simultaneous dual screen operation, just as sharp and clear as 
tethal screen- ......... . ,. .. . . . , ...... ..-.» ... . , ... .....,..,„.,..,...,.. $49.95 

lectronic RAM Disk and Printer Buffer Combination — the ultimate add-on for Kaypro I, II, 
4-84, 2-84 and 2X Computers. 

credible speed and efficiency are offered using Microsphere's dual operation Electronic RAM disk 
id printer buffer. No longer will you need to wait for your Kaypro to slowly finish mundane tasks such 
running a printer or waiting for floppy drives to turn when you have better things to do. 


Can be powered externally * 255 directory entries * 10 MHz microprocessor speed 
Compatible with Pro 8 and Plu-Perfect or 5 MHz speed up kits * Choice of drive A or E 
RAM disk memory not lost on cold boot or reset of Kaypro 
Printer buffer runs independently of RAM disk operation 
Printer buffer sizes available: 4K, 32K. 64K 

k.ny RAM Disk listed below can be expanded to lmb by 
dding memory chips. 

ssted RAM Disk without RAM Chips $295.00 

56K RAM Disk $395.00 

12K RAM Disk $495.00 

>8K RAM Disk $595.00 

vIB RAM Disk $695.00 

'Ken ordering, specify computer model and printer buffer size. 


Lecalc 14K Perfect Calc 9:3 1 .25 

oadLADDER.COM 9.38* 

oad Printer Buffer 

)K file, 11 pages, 2586 words 

ing PIP to the LST device 

Time in seconds 

LF. Modulator 


)escription Model Price 

■nith Composite 12" Amber 122 $119 

:nith Composite 12" Green 123 $114 

uadram 12" Amber Chrome 

iM/PC Type $195 






Easy and exciting language for all ages- TLC LOGOis an exceptionally complete logo with vectors, 
multiple turtles, full floating point decimals and extremely fast program execution. 


O XxViN JL^xVJWLJL/ version using only internal graphics of Kaypro 1, 2-84, 4-84, 2X and 
10; no hardware additions or modifications required; 16,000 pixel resolution. ........ $99.95 

ILJmusL^ K-J J\*.m1< version for all Kaypro Computers that have the Microsphere Color 
Graphics board. Features "1.6 colors, 32 sprites, 49,000 pixel resolution and utilities such as screen 
dump to printer or disk. ............. . .. ,. . ... ...... $129.95 

Specialt Color Board & Deluxe TLC Logo $199.95 

Infocom ADVENTURE Games/ 
Kaypro or PC Format 

2 Zork 1 $34.95 

3 Zork 2 39.95 

3 Zork 3 39.95 

4 Deadline 44.95 

4 Starcross 44.95 

4 Suspended 44.95 

2 Witness 44.95 

2 Planetfall 44.95 

LEVELS: l=Jr., 2=Standard, 3= Advanced, 4-Expert 
INVIS1CLUES available at $7.95 each for all above games. 


Note: Dual Screen means internal Kaypro screen and external monitor work at the same time. 

1. Kaypro I, 2-84, 2X, 4-84, 1 standard composite video $89.95 

2. New Kaypro I, 2-84, 4-84, 2X, 10 IBM type external monitor, 

dual screen operation . $49.95 

3. Older Kaypro 2 & 4, standard composite video, dual screen operation . . . . $49.95 

A NEW DIMENSION FOR KAYPRO COMPUTERS Color Graphics Board. Features 16 
colors, 32 sprites, 2 56x1 92 bit mapped graphics. Software includes 3 editors, drivers and routines 
to access graphics system. Utilities include screen dump to disk and printer. Dual screen operation. 

Color Board for Kaypro I, II, 4, 2-84, 2X, 4-84, 10 and Robie .... $ 145.00 

INSTANT GRAPHER 2.0 (For use with Color Graphics Board) Creates bar 
charts, stacked bar charts, hi/low, line graphs from keyboard, Perfect Calc, CalcStar or text 
files I $40.00 

2 Enchanter 44.95 

3 Infidel 39.95 

3 Sorcerer ., 39.95 

1 Seastalkef 34.95 

2 Cutthroats 34.95 

2 Hitchhikers 34.95 

3 Suspect 39.95 


g-5 Pacific Time AVAILABLE! 

Dealer inquiries invited. 

Microsphere, Inc. 
P.O.Box 1221 
Bend, Oregon 97709 

Kaypro is a registered trademark of the Kaypro Corporation TLC& LOGO is a trademark of LISP Company 

Professional software for your Kaypro 
at low, low prices. 

Proportional Spacing. Now in Version 3.0. Only $22.95 

A program that automatically installs your WordStar to print in proportional 
spacing and right justified margin. This means such letters as "i" and "1" will 
occupy much less space than letters like "m" and " w," and the space between 
words will be evenly spread out. As a result, every document you print, every 
letter you send out from your office will be dramatically improved in printout 
appearance and look almost typeset! Moreover, you can continue to print in 
right justification, boldface, shadow print, underscore, superscript, subscript, 
and a combination of these features while in proportional spacing mode. Best 
results are achieved when you use a PS printwheel, but fine even if you use the 
ordinary non-PS 10, 12, or 15-pitch printwheels. No crowded characters, 
even on one- word short lines. Comes with a disk and a manual plus a variety of 
printing tricks. Requires Kaypro, Juki, Brother, Silver-Reed, Star PowerType 
or any other letter-quality printers. Simply the best of its kind on the market at 
any price! 

Extra Bonus for Juki 6100 printer: Our Proportional Spacing program will 
also automatically install your Juki 6100 to print French cedilla (c) and 
German umlaut (u), two foreign characters not on your keyboard. Now your 

Mailing List. Only $15.95 

Just load it and start data entry! Extremely easy to use. Then print 1 , 2, 3 , or 4- 
across standard Avery labels. Specially set up for your DataStar and 
MailMerge, so you will get all the sophisticated features of DataStar and 
MailMerge: Add, delete, sort, and update your list anytime. Can sort any 
field. Number of records limited only by your disk capacity. Many tricks and 
tips included in our clearly written manual. Originally developed for a 
magazine subscription agency to keep track of more than 100,000 sub- 
scribers. Why waste time creating your own when you can use our fully tested 
and debugged program? Requires at least DataStar and MailMerge to run. 
For all Kaypro models and IBM compatibles. 

Juki 6 1 00 can print all the diacritical marks needed for French and German. 
Detailed instructions on how to print the other four special characters ( t § — , 
£) on Juki printwheels are included in our manual. 
Now, Version 3.0 with more features added: 

1 . Allows you to install up to four different kinds of printwheels, including the 
new Juki Standard PS and the 15-pitch Mini Majestic (sold below). 

2. Can print your NEW WORD files in proportional spacing and right 
justified margin. 

3. Detailed instructions on how to customize our program, if necessary, to 
produce a printout that suits your own personal taste. 

4. Professionally printed and bound manual. 

5. More printing tricks explained in plain Engish (not computerese) by our in- 
house printer specialist for you to take full advantages of your letter-quality 

Note: The Keypro Letter-quality printer that comes with your Kaypro 2X is 

the same as the Juki 6 1 00 in every aspect except color. 

For Kaypro II, 2, 2X, 4, 10, 16, 286i, and all IBM compatibles. 

Bibliography. Only $15.95 

An electronic marvel for modern scholars and writers! Just call it up and start 
building your own electronic bibliography database. Then print in MLA, 
Chicago, Trabian, or any other styles. Specially set up for your DataStar and 
MailMerge, so you can add, delete, sort, and update your bibliographic items 
anytime. Can sort any field. Number of records limited only by your disk 
capacity. Many tricks and tips discussed in our Manual. Used by the author in 
his Ph.D. dissertation on medieval Chinese military institutions. Saves you 
hours of frustration in creating your own. Requires at least DataStar and 
MailMerge to run. 
For all Kaypro models and IBM compatibles. 

Genuine Juki 6100 printwheels (100 characters). Only $22.95 each. 

Roman PS 





Jumps Right Over The Lazy Dog. [\]^[|]~ 

Standard PS 





Jumps Right Over The Lazy Dog. [Q]A°Hi 2 

Caroll OCR 12 





Jumps Right Over The Lazy Dog. [Q]A°H4 Z 

Mini Standard 12/15 





Jumps Right Over The Lazy Dog. [Q]A°Hi 2 

Mini Majestic 12/15 





Jumps Right Over The Lazy Dog. [G]A°iHi 2 

Joan Italic 10/12 





Jumps Right Over The Lazy Dog. [Q]A°hf% 2 

Note: Only Courier 1 0, Prestige Elite 1 2, and Roman PS are in the Juki Sequence and only these three can produce diacritical marks for French and German. The rest are 
in the Special Sequence and capable of printing other substitute characters as shown above. We now carry a full line of 1 8 genuine Juki-brand printwheels. You can order 
any Juki printwheel not listed here. Printwheel catalog will be sent free with any order. 

Public Domain Disk. Only $9.95 

Our software engineer has fully tested and assembled a disk full ( 1 9 1 K) of the finest CP/M 
programs now in the public domain. Saves you time and money to collect these on your own. 
Includes KSTROKES (a SmartKey-like program), SCREEN DUMP, NEW SWEEP, 
KMODEM, UNERASE, and much more. 
Absolutely a must. For Kaypro CP/M models only. 

Juki 6300 printer. List price $995.00. Our price Only $749.00 

Our in-house printer specialist fell in love with this latest baby from Juki. Highly 
recommended to those looking for a high-speed letter-quality printer. Prints at 40 characters 
per second, in 10, 12, 15 pitch and proportional spacing! Uses 96-character Diablo 
printwheels and ribbon. 1 6-inch wide platen. Fully compatible with all Kaypro models, 
including Kaypro 16 and 286i, and our Proportional Spacing program. One-year manu- 
facturer's warranty. FREE UPS shipping. No sales tax when shipped out of New Jersey. 


16 Greenbrier Row 
P.O. Box 2308 
Princeton, NJ 08540 
Telephone (609) 734-9016 


P.O. Box 2308 Princeton, NJ 08540 
Dear Chaucer, please rush me the following in 24 hours: 


Q Proportional Spacing 

□ Mailing List 

□ Bibliography 

□ Printwheel 


□ Public Domain Disk 
D Juki 6300 printer 

NJ residents only, add 6% sales tax 
First Class Postage 

Foreign orders add $10 for Air Mail 


□ Check Enclosed 


Exp. Date 

Name , 




□ MasterCard 

Signature . 

State . 


Kaypro Model . 

Printer . 


Volume 3, Number 2 

September 1985 

The Magazine for Kaypro Users 

No More Books 26 



Letters 6 

Q&A 10 

Technical Forum 84 

New Products 86 

Advertisers' Index 89 


No More Pencils, No More Books . 

by Jim Spickard 

Sampling CP/M educational software 


by Benson Wong and Mary DeDanan 
Practice offers competitive edge 

The Ultimate Computer Speed-Up 

by Sarah Wernick 
Learn to touch type 

DU to the Rescue 

by Ted Silveira 
Part 1: Into the jungle 

Disk Drive Diagnostics 

by Pieter Burggraaf 
Anticipating diskaster 







Editor's Notes 14 

by Tom Foote 

Life at 300 Baud 16 

by Brock Meeks 

Flea Market 20 

by Ted Silveira 

Cover illustration by Rick Geary 

September 3 

Exercise for 
the mind 

• over 40 


• English, Math, 


Calculus, etc. 

• For all popular 


• Proven over 10 




in NJ (201)738-8500 



330 New Brunswick Ave. 
Fords, NJ 08863 


4 r 


— ' j ,.y 

Vw/I iLLU 


Geoffrey W. Soule 


Tom Foote 


Terian Tyre 

Diane Ingalls 

Tom Enright 

Ted Silveira 

Dick Lutz 
Brock Meeks 

Doug Powell 

Lorraine Leung 

Gwyn Price 

Mary Boggy 


533 Stevens Avenue 

Solana Beach, CA 92075 



Nancy Donabedian 

249 S. Highway 101, Suite 321 

Solana Beach, CA 92075 


PROFILES (ISSN 8775-464X) is published 
ten times a year by Kaypro Corporation, 
Solana Beach, California. Registered 
owners of Kaypro computers, within the 
United States, are entitled to a six-issue 
introductory subscription. Subscriptions 
within the United States are available for 
$25.00 per year to people who are not 
registered Kaypro computer owners and for 
introductory subscription renewals. 
Copyright © 1985 by Kaypro Corporation. 
All rights reserved. Reproduction without 
express written consent of the publisher is 
strictly prohibited. Second Class postage 
pending at Solana Beach, CA, and at addi- 
tional mailing offices. 



General subscription information 
can be found on page 15. If your 
subscription is due to expire, we'll 
notify you by mail. No subscription 
will be cancelled until you are given 
a chance to renew. Our basic one- 
year rate is $25 (for ten issues). 

If your first issue does not arrive 
within eight weeks after you've 
sent in your warranty card, or you 
miss an issue, please write to: PRO- 
FILES, Circulation Dept., P.O. Box 
2889, Del Mar, CA 92014. We'll 
extend your subscription or send 
the issue. 

To direct PROFILES to a new 
address, attach a recent mailing 
label plus both your old and new 
addresses. Allow six to eight weeks 
for processing. 

If you have any other problem 
with your subscription or billing, 
please let us know at the above 
(Circulation) address so we can 
solve it promptly. 


Reviews, editorial references, and 
advertisements should not be 
taken as endorsements of any prod- 
ucts not specifically manufactured 
by Kaypro Corporation. Opinions 
expressed are those of individuals 
and do not represent any form of 
corporate certification. Nor do they 
necessarily reflect intensive tech- 
nical analysis as would be provided 
by a professional testing firm. 

Responsibility for advertised 
products lies with the advertisers. 
Though we will not knowingly pub- 
lish fraudulent materials, we are 
not liable for any damages arising 
from the purchase or use of any 
products. Should there be any con- 
sumer complaints regarding goods 
or services purchased from our 
advertisers, we would appreciate 
written notification to that effect to 
aid our own screening. □ 

4 Profiles 


integrated accounting prog i am-, which 
meet professional standards. They're 
fast and easy to use, with complete in- 
structions. Our manual (shown above) 
also includes helpful information 6"n 
bookkeeping and computers. 


Allows up to 1,000 accounts & 1,000 
transactions/month. Retains mo/end 
balances for Last year, This Year and 
Forecast. Includes Cash Disburse- 
ments, Cash Receipts and General 
Journals. Reports include Balance 
Sheet, Income Statement, Annual 
Summaries and Journal Reports. 


Allows up to 2,500 customers and 1,000 
invoices per month. Invoicing can access 
Inventory Module. Keeps customer 
names and addresses. Invoice prints on 
plain paper or any pre-printed form. 
Statements can be printed at any time. 


Allows up to 4,000 parts. Keeps 3 
month history of unit sales as well as 
year to date. With AR, can be used as 
point of sale system (prints invoices, 
handles cash). Reports include Inven- 
tory Value and Stock Report, Internal 
and Customer Price List. 


Allows up to id 600 in- 

voices/mo: Records invoices and hand- 
written checks. Prints computer checks 
on any pre-printed form. Keeps vendor 
names and addresses. 


Will handle up to 100 employees with 
eight deductions per employee. Deduc- 
tions may be determined as fixed dollar 
amounts or percentages, or referred to 
a table for automatic look-up. Tax tables 
are easily entered, or purchased sepa- 
rately. Prints checks and W2's. 





Try all 5 programs above (GL, AR, AP, 
IN, PR). Order our DEMO DISK lor 
$18.00 (includes shipping). Condensed 
versions of the programs give you the 
"/eel" of data entry and access. Includes 
sample reports and instructions. Specify 

Apple CPM 


Sanyo (all) 


Kaypro (all) 

Tandy (all) 


Morrow (all) 

Tele Video 


Osborne (all) 

Zenith 100 a 150 

Eagle (all) 


8 " CPM 

Epson OX- 10 

Radio Shack CPM 

Other compatibles 

WAN $125 

The "Catch-All" program. Files any 
type of information for quick access. 
Name or subject oriented with 15 lines 
of notes per name. Use TMAN as a 
mailing list, filing system, notebook, 
etc. Can be used alone or with data 
from our other programs. 
Try TMAN DEMO $16 

HOW TO ORDER: Please specify machine 
and disk format. You can pay by check, 
by VISA or MasterCard (we need your 
expiration date and card number), or by 
UPS COD (add $2.50 COD charge). Our 
price includes shipping. Minnesota resi- 
dents, add 6% sales tax). We ship most 
orders the same day. 
or ORDER BY PHONE: 612-339-2521 


James River Group 


125 North First Street 
Minneapolis, MN 55401 

mmuam ^'iSaffiS*'*^ 


Letters to the editor should he 
mailed to PROFILES, 533 Stevens 
Avenue, SolanaBeach, CA 92075. 


In the June 1985 introduction to 
"Life at 300 Baud" (page 24), the 
phone number for the Kaypro 
National Users' Group BBS should 
have been (516) 747-8308. And in 
the July/August introduction to 
the table of WordStar patch points 
(page 41), we meant the number for 
Wayne Master's Potpourri to he- 
(408) 378-7474. 

We regret any inconvenience the 
incorrect phone numbers may have 

Yahoos vs. byteheads? 

William Fankboner's polemic (in 
Letters, June 1985) against the 
"yahoos" who do not share his 
enthusiasm for electronic esoterica 
was edifying. I didn't realize that 
my "pernicious herd insecurity" 
was showing! Indeed, without the 
programs that came in the box 
with my Kaypro, I can't even spell 

He typifies the deep division 
between "yahoos" (I prefer to be 
called a user) and "byteheads" (if 
he apologizes for yahoo, I'll call him 
a hobbyist). To me, as a user, my 
computer is no more interesting 
than my circular saw. What in- 
terests me is that it, like the saw, is 
an effective tool. What it does for 
me is far more important than how 
it does it. 

Stephanie Goble 
Glendale, Arizona 

If I'd had any real doubts about che 
value of PROFILES, your June 
issue resolved them: you received 
the Fankboner Stamp of Disap- 
proval, which is my stamp of 

Please don't ever consider chang- 
ing to meet his standards, what- 
ever they may be. So far, you and 
Micro Cornucopia have earned the 
award. Who knows, he may honor 
even BYTE next! "* 

For sure, the more worthwhile 
the magazine to users as a group, 
the more certain is his disapproval. 

Jim Roley 
Hemet, California 

You've gotten guff recently in this 
column for pandering to yahoos 
instead of passing on worthwhile 
technical information. This sug- 
gests a corollary to McHolm's Law: 
"Every owner of computer equip- 
ment thinks his is the center of the 

As a writer, the CP/M WordStar 
3.3 is at the center of mine, and I 
appreciate the collection of Word- 
Star patches and DDT instruction 
by Ted Silveira and Tom Enright in 
your July/August issue. I look for- 
ward to future trailblazing. 

Yahoo! Yahoo! Yahoo! 

Jim Poison 

Wilmington, North Carolina 

What's wrong with this 

My children, ages 7 and 9, enjoy the 
"How Many Things Can You Find 
Wrong in This Picture?" game. I 
played it with them using the July/ 
August cover of PROFILES. 

They found: 

— diskettes not in their protec- 
tive covers 

—no labels on the diskettes 

—no master, backup and work- 
ing copy color dots (a local custom) 

—diskettes too close to magnetic 
sources (telephone, keyboard) 

—a cold cup that could sweat 
and ruin the neighboring diskette 

—potential heat/cold damage 

from storing diskettes too close to a 

— a keyboard sitting on a dis- 
kette (or at least it looked that way 
to a 7 -year-old). 

I added that the diskettes are 
probably contaminated by graph- 
ite, paper dust, eraser crumbs, ink 
for the listing, and tractor feed hold 
cutouts, and that they're probably 
scratched by the steno pad spring 
binding and deteriorated by ultra- 
violet light from being stored in 
direct sunlight. There is also the 
potential for disaster if the tele- 
phone handset or a book is dropped 
on the diskettes or coffee is spilled. 

For the new computer user, this 
cover was a subliminal invitation to 

Ron Hale 

North Little Rock, Arkansas 

Though we intended that cover to 
be far more aesthetic than in- 
structional, the solid instruction 
your letter provides is most 
important and much appre- 
ciated. Thankyou. (Wecan'twait 
for the letters about this month's 
image of hitting diskettes with a 

The Third World: who cares? 

Nobody gives a damn about micros 
in the Third World or the "Disap- 
peared Ones" in Argentina. How 
about more service pieces for using 
the Kaypro here in the U.S.A.? How 
about "What Makes a Kaypro 
Work" for the layman? 

Dave Richieh 

Los Angeles, California 

Computer technology will only 
serve mankind adequately when 
computer use becomes a means to 
an end, rather than an end in itself. 
The last two issues of PROFILES 

6 Profiles 

contained articles that illustrate 
future possibilities and thus serve 
a useful purpose far beyond that of 
helping the hacker /hobbyist. 

The interview with Alvin Toffler 
and the article on telecommuting 
by Gil Gordon in the May issue and 
those in the June issue on micro- 
computer use in the third world 
and in tracking the "Disappeared 
Ones" in Argentina represent the 
type of writing that expands the 
reader's understanding so that 
more applications of computer 
technology become possible. 

Herbert C. McKee 
Houston, Texas 

Like, totally awesome 

Your July/August 1985 issue was 
"killer"; great articles. I hope some- 
one's saved a special place in 
heaven for Ted Silveira and the oth- 
ers he mentioned. His "WordStar 
Deluxe" resurrected my RX-80 
from its dreary, pica-only dol- 
drums. His WordStar patches 
worked like a charm . 

Kudos also to William Hogan for 
his article on SUBMIT and to Tom 
Enright for his nifty little WordStar 
patch to zap that tiresome first 
graphic screen. 

Richard Muzinich 
Sacramento, California 

Your article on customizing Word- 
Star was dynamite. I had already 
ordered a printer buffer, but after 
testing the patch you suggested for 
MORPAT, I cancelled that order 
today. Saved $300! 

George E. Delury 
New York, New York 

Although I've been a Kaypro user 
for some time now, my subscription 
to PROFILES was just started with 

the July/ August issue, and I must 
let you know that the one article by 
Ted Silveira on customizing Word- 
Star has been the most helpful of 
any I've read in the past year of 

studying. His work alone would jus- 
tify the existence of the magazine. 

Steven Goldblatt 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Open the door to diskette 
compatibility with UniForm! 

Just $69.95 turns one of your floppy drives into 
a "look-alike" of most popular CP/M* computers. 

UniForm is the easy and inexpensive way to enable your 
CP/M computer to directly read, write and format diskettes 
from the most popular CP/M micros. This innovative 
program actually emulates the desired foreign drive. Files 
that were previously incompatible work flawlessly with your 
own software tools, such as word processors, database 
managers and spreadsheets. In addition, you can transfer 
files to or from MS-DOS." 

Menu-driven UniForm is mastered in just minutes — 
simply load, select the proper diskette format and go! 
Operation of your . .', ',. • V «jj . 

software is un- ! * 

changed. At - , 
just $69:93, „■<?" 
compatibility* .; 
never cost -.„ 
so litter- Sjfl 

UniForm' is available 

'.'■; from your local 

: %omputer dealer or 

•' -Micro Solutions. 

'Foi'uSers.of IBM PC, 

'v, compatibles, 
'-"".' UniForm-PC 
'•.provides direct 
' access to CP/M 
data diskettes. 
r„ Also just 

"%X $69.95. 


"B@KS$h ii fii 


September 7 


MBACOUNT/$89.00: Small business double entry accounting. Up to 40 asset, 40 liabilities, 40 
income, 80 expense & 20 capital accounts user assignable. Prints checks, P & L, balance sheet, 
chart of accounts, single account details, check ledger, etc. Generates a printable detail journal for 
audit trail. 

A/R, A/P, PAYROLL INVENTORY: These programs are available as either stand alone software 
or MBACOUNT integrated modules. Stand alone $79.00 ea. Integrated $50.00 ea. 
PROFBILL/$1 49.00: Time keeping and billing for all professional people who bill at various hourly 
rates. Handles 400 clients, 10 partners/employees. Prints billings, statements, aged billings, 
partner/employee hours, etc. May be used stand alone or integrated with MBACOUNT. 
SBACOUNT/$79.00: Small business single entry system. Up to 99 income and 99 expense 
categories, user assignable. Prints checks, P & L (month, quarter, YTD), single account details, 
check ledger. Generates a printable income/expense journal for audit trail. 
MAiLLIST/$89.00: Mailing list/filing program. 1 fields per record and up to 900 records per file, 
files limited only by disk space. Sort/print all or partial list by most fields on 1 , 2, or 3 across labels on 
80 col. printer. Search, add to, delete or edit by most fields. 

MBADATA/$89.00: A data/base-filing system usable without learning any special language or 
control codes. Up to 253 characters, 24 fields, 900 records per file. Sort, print, display any fields in 
any location in any order desired. Menu driven with step by step prompts! 
STANFORM/$79.00: Need to fill out pre-printed forms? Then this program was made for you! 
Generates programs for printing data in the proper location on any pre-printed form that will fit into 
your printer. Each form need be generated only once as it is saved on disk. 
$FINANCE/$79.00: Personal finance, prints checks, posts to as many as 120 user assignable 
expense categories, posts checks & deposits, reconciles multiple checking accounts, etc. Similar 
program for up to 9 charge cards. Extracts/prints listings for various categories. 
TOUCHTYP/$49.00: Parallels high school/college level touchtyping course. Displays typos, final 
score. Timed speed drill mode. Electronic typewriter mode converts your printer to a one line 
memory electronic typewriter with settable margins, tabs, line spacing, etc. 
MSBCHART/$49.00: Prints alphabetized list of all variables & line numbers referenced in any 
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, r ,-;fo- 

Ted Silveira's article, "WordStar 
Deluxe," was great. I encourage you 
to have more such articles in the 
future. The article by William 
Hogan, "The Best-Kept Secret in 
CP/M: Why Didn't Anybody Tell Me 
About SUBMIT?", will save me a lot 
of time in the future. 

T. Crawford Honeycutt 
Arlington, Virginia 

The new Perfect software, 
pro and con 

I appreciated the articles on the 
new Perfect software in your June 
issue. I am a confirmed user of Per- 
fect Writer and, for some months 
now, I have been using version 2.0.1 
generally agree with the evaluation 
of PW 2.0 by Joseph Comanda and 
Michael Harney. I am happy I pur- 
chased the upgrade and find that it 
makes a good word processor even 
better. Though I find the slowness 
of the program and the copy protec- 
tion real drawbacks, the new fea- 
tures, like the menus and the 
thesaurus, are really great im- 

The article referred to the menus 
favorably, but did say that one 
drawback was the use of more key- 
strokes to execute commands. I 
have found that the Kaypro option 
for reconfiguring the keypad 
makes the execution of the PW 2.0 
commands very easy. 

Jim Hentges 

New Rochelle, New York 

The new Perfect Software is so slow 
and cumbersome that within two 
weeks of "playing" with it, I wrote 
to Thorn EMI to get my money 
back. It is not an "upgrade" from 
the old (to use their word). It is a 
"travesty" to sell this to anyone 
with a Kaypro II who is used to the 
old Perfect Software, which, with 
its few problems, is still a pretty 

8 Profiles 

good bundle of software. 

Clarency R Cameron 
Madison, Wisconsin 


While reading the July/August 
1985 issue of PROFILES I was 
appalled to find such a libelous 
statement by William Hogan: 'And 
what David Gerrold didn't tell you 
in April is that Checks is SLOW It 
takes 97 seconds to close a file, exit 
to the system, and load Checks & 
Balances again." 

That statement is clearly telling 
everyone that Checks & Balances 
is a very slow program — an out- 
right lie . . . I suggest you and Mr. 
Hogan do timing tests on each and 
every program and SUBMIT file 
mentioned in his article, "ibu will 
soon find that the time to exit 
Checks & Balances and re-enter it 
is average. 

Patrick Lajko 
President, CDE Software 

Hogan responds 

I regret Pat Lajko's irritation. As 
was clear from the article, I use 
Checks & Balances regularly. I 
found it easy to figure out, and hard 
to screw up. 

"Slow" is a relative term and a 
personal one. The interest in cus- 
tomizing and patching WordStar is 
an example of user frustration with 
and desire for improvements in pro- 
grams they regularly use and basi- 
cally like. 

"Fast" is also a relative term. Pat 
Lajko says in his ads that Checks & 
Balances is fast. Fast in com- 
parison to what? On what ma- 
chine? With what size of data file? 
He doesn't say. His statement, as 
was mine, is an expression of per- 
sonal opinion . . . 

Pat Lajko created a product 
which he sells. I bought it. I use it. I 

have a personal opinion about it. I 
wish it worked faster than it does 
for me on my machine. 

William Hogan 
Burbank, California 

We intend for the benchmark tim- 
ings in our roundup of home 
accounting packages (scheduled 
for November) to better detail 
speed differences across several 
major competitors in this product 
class. D 

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September 9 






by Tom Enright 

We welcome and read all your 
letters. Some letters of general 
interest are printed in the Letters 
column; others are pleas for tech- 
nical help. Questions that lend 
themselves to simple, concise 
answers are dealt with here, 
while more advanced topics 
develop into articles or discus- 
sions in the Technical Forum. 

Due to the volume, we simply 
can't respond personally to re- 
quests for assistance. For ques- 
tions requiring an immediate 
reply, you should contact your 
dealer. Kaypro Technical Sup- 
port now gives priority to dealer 
calls. This means it may be diffi- 
cult to get them on the phone. 
They are still at (6 19) 48 1-3920, or 
you can write to Kaypro Software 
Technical Support, P.O. Box N, 
DelMar, CA 92014. Please include 
your daytime phone number in 
all correspondence. 

Standard language 

Somewhere I read that the Army, 
government, or whoever had devel- 
oped a language versatile enough 
for use on everything from main- 
frames to minis. I got the impres- 
sion that this was "the language of 
the future"; i.e., that it would 
become a standard. Do you know 
the name of this language? 

Richard Hilliard 
Pahoa, Hawaii 

It sounds like you're talking about 
ADA. The Department of Defense 
felt that having everything writ- 
ten in the same language would 
be advantageous to the govern- 
ment. The result was that ADA 
was designed by a committee to 
do every thing from accounting to 
real-time weapons control. 

The language itself resembles 
PASCAL somewhat and is unbe- 
lievably complex — so complex 

that a complete implementation 
for microsystems is unlikely. ADA 
compilers for micros are avail- 
able, but all of them are subsets of 
the complete language. 

As far as being "the" language 
of the future, I don't think so. 
Being a committee-designed lan- 
guage, ADA is very hard to pro- 
gram in — it's just too bloody 

If you are looking for an ADA 
compiler, check a few issues of 
BYTE. You shouldfind a couple of 
them advertised there. 

Microwave computers 

I recently heard through a col- 
league and fellow Kaypro user that 
research on the radiation emission 
of microcomputer screens has indi- 
cated that a typical user receives 
the equivalent of dozens of chest X- 
rays each year. This is an alarming 
number, given that doctors recom- 
mend having no more than one 
chest X-ray per year. 

This colleague also had heard 
that, because of their awareness of 
this issue, Japanese computer 
manufacturers install protective 
shields on their screens. 

This would seem to be an impor- 
tant issue for PROFILES to ad- 
dress. In particular, the public 
should be informed about the find- 
ings of reputable and independent 
research on screen radiation. Also, 
what are the most effective and 
least expensive modifications 
users can obtain to reduce the 

Douglas D. Perkins 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

The X-ray emissions of all CRTs 
are tightly controlled by federal 
regulations. The emissions in all 
frequency bands from a CRT are 
proportional to the applied cath- 
ode voltage. Monochrome (green) 

CRTs used in Kaypro computers 
are specified to emit .0005 R/H 
(Roentgens per hour) maximum. 
In actual use emissions are much 
lower (.00012 R/H). This is be- 
cause the maximum emission 
levels are measured at a much 
higher cathode voltage than a 
Kaypro uses. 

We say emissions in actual use 
are closer to .00012 R/H because 
emissions this low are very diffi- 
cult to measure. Background 
radiation in many parts of the 
country is higher than this and 
masks the emissions of the CRT. 
For example, background radia- 
tion in both Denver, Colorado, 
and in Washington, D. C, is nor- 
mally above this level. 

Color CRTs emit more X-rays 
than monochrome CRTs because 
higher voltages are used. But 
even these are significantly less 
than the emissions from a color 

This subject of dangerous rad- 
iation from CRTs comes up every 
couple of years. Each time, it 
turns out that the procedures 
used in the so-called research are 
questionable. The bottom line is 
that spending money on modifi- 
cations such as leaded glass 
shields is a waste of money. 

Eyestrain caused by improper 
lighting conditions in the work 
area is a more pertinent problem 
to be concerned about. Glare and 
reflections on the CRT are a more 
serious threat than X-ray emis- 
sions ever were or will be. 

Technical frustration 

In reference to your Technical 
Forum of June 1985: Man, have you 
hit on a sore point! 

Where in the bloody -blue-blazes 
does Kaypro indicate just where 
"Ports is Ports?" I have a Kaypro 
2 '84. I would really like to do some 
assembly language programming 

10 Profiles 

Copyright © 1985 Tom Enright. All rights reserved. 

on this machine. Without the cor- 
rect port addresses, I'm lost. 

How can I possibly get the infor- 
mation you take for granted in this 

Please beef up this kind of hack- 
ing information in your future 
columns. You'll be doing the read- 
ership and the circulation director 
a tremendous favor. 

William Mohr 

Benton Harbor, Michigan 

The Technical Forum column of 
November 1984 contained a list- 
ing of port addresses for Kaypro 
computers. Another excellent 
source of technical information is 
Micro Cornucopia, one of our reg- 
ular advertisers. Their schematic 
package, with its theory of opera- 
tion, is an excellent value. If 
you're really into assembly lan- 
guage and Kaypros, I would rec- 
ommend subscribing to Micro 
Cornucopia as well as PROFILES. 

In addition to port addresses 
you'll need the data sheets for 
individual chips. Your best bet 
here is to get the "data books" put 
together by the chip manufactur- 
ers. These can usually be found at 
electronic parts stores or ham 
radio stores. For some reason, not 
many computer dealers handle 
these books unless they cater to 
the "hacker" trade. 

I agree that more technical 
information should be made 
available in the user guides. I 
hope that this situation can be 
corrected in the future. 

BASIC code conversion 

I have been having a good deal of 
trouble converting some programs 
written in other dialects of BASIC 
into code that runs on my Kaypro. 
The lines that are giving me the 
most trouble have either a "LO- 
CATE" or "PRINT®" command 

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somewhere in the statement. 

These commands are used heav- 
ily in game programs. Can you help 
me out? 

Rob Miller 
Union, Oregon 

The commands you refer to, 
"PRINT® " in Radio Shack BASIC, 
are for cursor positioning. These 
commands exist to make cursor 
positioning easy in a BASIC dia- 
lect designed for a specific com- 
puter. The BASIC that comes with 
Kaypro computers is Microsoft 
BASIC-80, a generic BASIC with 
no such built-in commands. 

You can do the same thing in 
BASIC-80 by sending Kaypros' 
cursor positioning string, ESC = 
ROW COL, to the screen in a print 
statement. ROW and COL need to 
have an offset of 32 added to them 
before being sent to the screen. 
The easiest way is to assign the 
row and column numbers you 
want to move to in the variables 
ROW and COL. Then insert the 
following statement: PRINT 
CHR$(27) + CHR$(61) + 
CHR$(ROW+32) + CHR$- 

The PRINT® statement in 
TANDY BASIC is a little harder to 
convert into row and column 
numbers. This is because this 
BASIC dialect looks at the screen 
as a sequential list of positions. 
After column 65 on each row the 
next number simply wraps to col- 
umn 1 of the next line. (PRINT® 1 
means row 1 column 1 and 
PRINT® 66 is row 2 column J.J 
There may be some deviation 
from this formula, depending on 
just which Radio Shack model the 
code was intended for. A little 
experimentation with the code 
may be needed, but the basic idea 
is correct. 

12 Profiles 

Cooked Kay pro 

I have a Kaypro 10 that became 
overheated because I let 1/4 inch of 
dirt accumulate on the fan. Now it 
works for about an hour and a half 
and then crashes. In two hours it 
cools off enough to go for another 
hour and a half. 

I believe the problem is heat 
damage, but no one has been able 
to fix it. It was in the shop for a full 
month with no solution. Is there a 
troubleshooting book available? 
Self-help seems to be the only 

Nick Borst 
Warrenton, Virginia 

I'm sure you've learned a lesson 
about cleaning the fan filter. 

Given the conditions that you 
describe, there 's a good chance of 
massive heat damage in your 
machine. This kind of damage 
could affect more than one com- 
ponent. The most heat-sensitive 
one in a Kaypro 10 is the hard- 
disk controller board. It's difficult 
to accept that your dealer could 
not fix the damage. I'd start pa- 
tronizing another dealer. 

Kaypro sells its dealers repair 
kits that allow them to replace 
every single component in the 
computer. With this parts kit, a 
dealer can keep replacing mod- 
ules until the computer works. 

The only troubleshooting book 
devoted to Kaypro that I know of is 
the Dealers Reference Manual/rom 
Kaypro. Many dealers sell them to 
customers looking for technical 
information about their comput- 
ers. I'd sincerely advise you to try 
another dealer instead of doing it 
yourself. Without technical train- 
ing, you could do more damage 
than good, and, more impor- 
tantly, you could get hurt. □ 



c*;%>>- s ' 



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September 13 

by Tom Foote 

Picture this: Excited buyers 
tearing into the boxes of their 
new IBM-compatible Kay- 
pros (16, 16-2, 2000, 286i, or even 
other models yet to come). There it 
is: the latest issue of "PROFILES, 
The Magazine for Kay pro Users." 

"Super," they think, "a magazine 
written just for me!" 

Super — until they start reading. 
Sure, we've covered more of the 
IBM world than most might think: 
"CP/M vs. MS-DOS", December/ 
January 1985; MS-DOS upgrade in 
"Q & A", April 1985; "WordStar 
Deluxe", July/August 1985; and 
separate stories on the Kaypro 16, 
2000, and 286i in our 1985 Feb- 
ruary, May, June, and July issues. 
But, so far, buyers of Kaypro 16-bit 
machines do have reason to ask: 
"Will this predominantly CP/M 
magazine offer me enough to 
justify paying for it?" 

A fate worse than 
-The New Coke?" 

Oh, please, you say, let the already- 
privileged IBMers savor the wealth 
of publications that speak to them 
exclusively. (Anyone notice how 
some ads in even Byte and Info- 
World no longer bother to specify 
operating systems? Is this a sub- 
liminal directive to get on the PC/ 
MS-DOS bandwagon before it rolls 
over you?) 

Editor's Notes 

PROFILES and bandwagons 

I can hear you now, exclaiming: 
"Don't you dare IBM-ize PRO- 
FILES]" You are that last great 
vestige of microcomputing's be- 
ginnings. You're all we CP/Mers 
have got." (We've received other 
urgings just as strong.) 

What the numbers say 

I share your passion to hype the 
case for CP/M, and, of course, for 
PROFILES. But I thought we'd all 
be better off arguing from objective 
estimates rather than emotion — 
estimates, however rough, that 
hint at the numbers of potential 
readers using either system. 

Since PROFILES is the largest 
predominantly CP/M magazine 
still alive (95,000 copies printed 
each month), I wondered just how 
big the whole CP/M market is — ir- 
respective of machine type. Info- 
Corp estimates that, as of last 
December 31st (1984), CP/M ma- 
chines comprised 37 percent of the 
installed base of CP/M, IBM, and 
IBM-compatibles. That is, they 
estimate 1.7 million CP/M ma- 
chines sold versus 2.85 million IBM 
and IBM-compatibles. (Yes, the 
data are old. Moreover, the CP/M 
count excludes the number of CP/M 
Apples— widely thought to be the 
largest share of the CP/M pie. But 
it's the best that InfoCorp and I 
could do at press time.) 

This huge CP/M installed base 
represents a tempting market, to 
be sure, but this is the magazine for 
Kaypro users. 

So what are the corresponding 
Kaypro proportions? Roughly 
speaking, sales through June 30, 

1985, show that CP/M machines 
still comprise the vast majority of 
all Kaypros sold. However, the IBM- 
compatible proportion is growing 


We want to continue serving our 
large majority of CP/M users. But to 
ignore the growing proportion of 
Kaypro MS-DOS users makes pack- 
ing this magazine with Kay pro's 
newest machines a little silly. 

What we can do is cover more 
MS-DOS, but in ways that will gen- 
uinely benefit and please the CP/M 
users too. 

Our plans: The January 1986 
issue will mark the launching of a 
new PROFILES. It will appear 
twelve, not ten, times a year. It will 
offer a different look, a column on 
MS-DOS, and generally more ap- 
peal to MS-DOS Kaypro users. But, 
completely unlike those so-called 
"exclusive" magazines — it will con- 
tinue to offer much productivity- 
boosting CP/M material, while 
making MS-DOS articles appeal to 
CP/M users too. 

How to do the latter? By having 
those experienced in both CP/M 
and MS-DOS write the MS-DOS 
articles, and by stressing just how 
MS-DOS hardware, software, and 
technique compare to known en- 
tities on the CP/M side. 

We already feel challenged by 
serving broad ranges of age, in- 
terest, and expertise — now add two 
different operating systems? 

Relax. We're excited about the 
new challenges. And we think 
you'll be pleased with the results. □ 

Copyright © 1985 Tom Foote. All rights reserved. 

14 Profiles 



The Magazine For Kaypro Users 

If you own a Kaypro, six issues of PROFILES 
won't cost you a penny. 

There's Gold 

in Those Programs 

If you've purchased a Kaypro computer, 
the cost of a six-issue PROFILES sub- 
scription was included in the purchase 
price. If you sent in your warranty card, 
you should be on the mailing list. If you 
haven't received an issue in the mail, 
please fill out the form below and send it 
in. We must have accurate serial num- 
bers and zip codes for subscriptions to 
go through, so be thorough. Please 
allow 10-12 weeks for delivery. Note: the 
introductory subscription begins with the first issue you 
receive in the mail and has no relationship to the com- 
plimentary issue packed in your machine. 

If you don't have the luck to own a Kaypro, you can still 
subscribe (use the lower form). Or you can pick up a copy 
at any authorized Kaypro dealer. Call Toll Free Nation- 
wide 1-800-4KAYPRO / In Calif. 1-800-9KAYPRO for 
the dealer nearest you. 

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□ Please Begin My Introductory Six-issue Subscription. 



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'Owners outside of U.S.A. should consult their Kaypro dealers, or write 
International, P.O. Box N, Dei Mar, CA 92014. Additional postage rates 


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"Subscribers outside of U.S.A. should write to: Kaypro International, P.O. Box N, Del Mar, CA 92014. 

Send to: PROFILES Subscriptions, P.O. Box 2889, Del Mar, CA 92014. 
Please allow 10-12 weeks for delivery. 


September 15 

by Brock Meeks 

Education in the Information 
Age is a quantum leap from 
the days of the one-room 
schoolhouse. Interactive videotex, 
modems and online databases are 
the high-tech counterparts of 
chalkboards, lecture halls and 

Terms like "electronic class- 
room," "online education," and 
"telelearning" put new meaning in 
the Madison Avenue hype phrase 
"back to school." Buzzwords aside, 
it all boils down to getting an edu- 
cation without setting foot inside a 

Online universities 

Telelearning Systems of San Fran- 
cisco is now in its third year of 
providing an online education. 
Founded by Ron Gordon (former 
chief executive officer of Atari), 
Telelearning Systems offers hun- 
dreds of online courses via its 
"Electronic University." 

Connecting with the Electronic 
University is easy. All you need is a 
modem (300/1200 baud) and the 
communications software pro- 
vided by Telelearning when you 
enroll. (Enrollment is handled 
through an 800 number voice 
line — see listing at end of this arti- 
cle). Courses cover subjects from 
computer skills to parenting, ac- 
counting to law. 

Currently 200 colleges and uni- 

Life at 300 Baud 

The electronic schoolhouse 

versities across the nation partici- 
pate in the network that forms the 
Electronic University. 

For example, you have a choice of 
three different Master of Business 
Administration programs offered 
by City University of Bellevue, 
Washington. Edison State College 
in New Jersey offers four under- 
graduate degrees. These degree 
programs, and more than 1 70 indi- 
vidual courses, are all part of the 
Electronic University's extensive 

Each school develops its own 
courses and forwards them to Tele- 
learning, which incorporates them 
into the general program. 

Gordon stresses that online 
courses are developed solely by the 
originating institution, and not by 
Telelearning. The credits a student 
receives and that an employer or 
other institution will evaluate will 
not be credits from Telelearning, 
but from the school that originally 
developed the course. And on stu- 
dents' transcripts, there's no dif- 
ference between courses taken on 
campus or through the Electronic 

Costs range from $90 to $150 
per class, depending on the course 
you enroll in. 

All the Electronic University's 
courses meet or exceed standard 
College Level Examination Pro- 
gram (CLEP) levels. According to 
Telelearning, you can transfer your 
credits to more than 1,700 schools 
that currently accept CLEP level 

All "class work" is done via 
modem. When you finish an 
assignment, you upload it to the 

Telelearning network. A professor 
then grades and comments on your 
work. If at any time an assignment 
has you stumped, you can arrange 
to "talk" with your professor via an 
online real-time conference. 

Executive education 

The Western Behavioral Sciences 
Institute (WBSI) of La Jolla, Califor- 
nia, offers online courses designed 
to help executives and government 
officials improve their manage- 
ment and communications skills. 
A 27-year-old "think tank" re- 
searching human communication, 
governmental policy, and educa- 
tion, WBSI developed its online 
educational program to "alert to- 
day's decision makers to the new 
requirements of leadership," says 
its president Dr. Richard Farsen. 

The online structure of WBSI 
affords people in leadership the 
opportunity to learn from each 
other, according to Farsen. 

Participants go through a two- 
year program consisting of four 
modules. Each module lasts six 
months, and each one of those six 
months is devoted to a separate 
course. Subjects include "The Pri- 
vate Sector and The State," "Tech- 
nological Evolution and Its Effect 
on Society," "Management of Scar- 
city and Abundance," "Interna- 
tional Economics and Trade" (a 
cross-cultural economics study 
program), and "Global Access and 

The advantage of WBSI's pro- 
gram is that itdoesn't take students 
away from the work environment 
(as do some of the high-powered 
management schools, such as Har- 

16 Profiles 

Copyright © 1985 Brock Meeks. All rights reserved. 

vard's, where participants must 
leave their jobs for a long time). 

Using computer conferencing, 
participants discuss areas of con- 
cern, hold debates, and critique 
each other's papers (and hash out 
their frustration with the medium). 

Participants include college 
presidents, corporate CEOs, and 
national and foreign government 

There is a small catch: the price 
tag. A two-year stint online with 
WBST costs $25,000 (yes, that's a 
comma there, not a decimal point). 

Current enrollment consists of 
participants from Westinghouse, 
TRW, the Central Intelligence 
Agency, Hewlett Packard, DEC, 
AT&T, Phillip Morris, Chase Man- 
hattan Bank, the Government 
Accounting Office, Pacific Gas and 
Electric, Southern California Gas, 
Textronics, Saleina A. B. (the lar- 
gest shipping firm in Sweden) and 
Marathon Oil (of Caracas, Vene- 
zuela) — to name a few. 

A recent review of the nation's 
top business management pro- 
grams by the Harvard Business 
Review placed WBSI's program in 
the top five and suggested that 
other management programs emu- 
late WBSI's form and content. 

International electronic 

The Intercultural Network is an 
experimental research program 
designed to promote a better under- 
standing of different cultures 
among high school students. 

The network is the collective 
effort of six professors from the Uni- 
versity of California at San Diego, 
Hebrew University in Israel and 
Tokyo University in Japan. 

Dr. Margaret Riel, one of the 
developers at UCSD, says the inten- 
tion of the network is to "give the 
kids involved a global perspective 
of the world." 

Using the electronic mail and 
computer conferencing functions 
of a commercial information utility, 
students in Japan, Israel, Mexico 
and the United States take part in 
an online electronic network that 
draws them into each other's lives. 

One way of helping students 
develop this global perspective is 

by a "news analysis" project. 

"We had each of the different 
sites collect headlines from their 
major newspapers and compare 
them," said Riel. "This way the kids 
gained an understanding of how 
the media in different cultures 
reports the news. What's important 
in San Diego hardly makes a dif- 
ference in Israel— which is some- 

tion Corporation (NEC) of Newport 
Beach, California, has offered in- 
home independent study courses. 
NEC hopes its new online National 
Education Network will encourage 
students to study at home using 

NEC currently offers 60 inde- 
pendent study courses, and early 
this fall it will announce an agree- 

200 colleges and 

universities across 

the nationform the 

Electronic University. 

thing they hadn't been aware of 

Since the medium allows mul- 
tiple input, all participants can see 
and comment on what the others 
observe. This stimulates further 
conversation and encourages 
exploration of different cultures. 

In-home goes online 

For 30 years the National Educa- 

ment with communications giant 
AT&T that will allow NEC to take 
advantage of expanded videotex 
technology. Enrollment is not lim- 
ited in any way and is accom- 
plished with a simple phone call. 

NEC will supply communica- 
tions software to support any mo- 
dem type. Online students will be 
able to communicate with NEC's 
online instructors and take tests at 




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if II *■ Wi 1 

September 17 

CHARTECH turns WORDSTAR™ into a great 

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and some daisys, design your own 
characters, and fully control your 
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home with their computers. 

NEC offers 12 two-year associate 
degree programs. Most of these are 
in vocational/technical areas such 
as auto mechanics and basic elec- 
tronics. Although NEC is accred- 
ited in California, transfer of NEC 
credits is at the discretion of the 
receiving institution. 

All NEC courses are developed 
by in-house staff, and fees-are $500 
to $1,200 per course. The curricu- 
lum is extensive — you can study 
everything from fashion merchan- 
dising to civil engineering. 

University to the world 

"We want to be a university to the 
world," says Connected Education's 
director Paul Levinson. "Our phi- 
losophy is that education shouldn't 
be tied to a classroom or geo- 
graphic region." 

In conjunction with the New 
York-based New School of Social 
Research, Connect Ed is pushing 
the traditional views of education 
into a new perspective. 

Connect Ed's first semester 
starts in September, and its curric- 
ulum is small. Levinson (who uses 
a Kaypro 10 to conduct his classes) 
explains the scarcity of courses. 
"We wanted to be sure we had a 
solid base of courses and a group of 
dependable online instructors. 
Once established, we plan to ex- 
pand rapidly." 

Courses offered this semester 
are "Teleworld," an analysis of the 
social impacts of new media; 'Ar- 
tificial Intelligence and Real Life," 
which asks questions such as "Is 
protein necessary for intel- 
ligence?"; plus "Propaganda: The 
Literary Science." All three courses 
are offered for credit through the 
New School of Social Research. 
Levinson says transfer of Connect 
Ed credits to other institutions is 
possible at the discretion of the 
receiving school. 

There are definite plans to ex- 
pand the curriculum for the next 
semester. Future subjects include 
"Telelaw," "Nuclear Peril" and 
"Science Fiction." 

(continued on page 78) 

18 Profiles 

for the height of 
your craft... 


KAMAS, Z80, & CP/M are trademarks of KAMASOFT', Zilog, & Digital Research respectively. 
' formerly Compusophic Systems. 

As an idea craftsman, you use 
your mind like a skilled pair of 
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then manipulate them to dis- 
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new thoughts. 
,| Now. the tool that can strengthen 
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,'• your reach. 

•-. KAMAS"-' a revolutionary outline 
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supports your thinking process 
' . and keeps you in touch with your 
,j ideas. That's because KAMAS is 
p.; designed to work the way your 
ft- mind works — naturally. 

Begin by brainstorming. KAMAS 
enables you to jot down ideas 
quickly, as you think of them. If 
you want to elaborate, you can 
add text with full screen editing. 
Sj Then develop your ideas using a 
familiar outline format. Change 
the structure as easily as you 
change your mind. Move an idea 
and all attached text moves 
with it. 

KAMAS puts full control at your 
fingertips. You can keep track of 
your main line of thought by col- 
lapsing the details from view. 
Then, expand the outline to devel- 
op the specifics when you need 
to. By collapsing and expanding 
portions of the outline, you can 
maintain an overview and literally 
see how your Ideas fit together 
And KAMAS is fast. Your ideas re- 
main at your fingertips. KAMAS 
can locate and retrieve by 
keyword— even a misspelled 
one— in less than a second per 
topic file. 

Use as much of the power as you 
feel comfortable with. KAMAS Is 
menu-driven with over 100 on-line 
help screens. But you can also 
open the hood to find a high 
performance programming 
environment with the additional 
horsepower you may need to 
get the job done. An active user 
community and the KAMAS 
Report newsletter keep you in 
touch with the latest KAMAS 

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Get your hands on KAMAS now. Send 5147 plus S4 
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QUICK REGISTER (POINTOFSALE)turns your computer into 
a very special cash register. Enter the quantity and item num- 
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invoice, and adjusts the inventory! RIP lists the inventory sev- 
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For the name of your nearest dealer, write or call: 


Route 5, Box 277-C • Benbrook, Texas 761 26 • (817)249-0166 

September 19 

by Ted Silveira 

Around the beginning of the 
year, things looked bleak in 
the CP/M public domain. 
ZCPR3 and MEX were still grow- 
ing, but major bulletin boards were 
giving more space to MS-DOS, and 
it seemed that no new CP/M pro- 
grams were coming out. Then 
around March came signs of life — 
three new public domain programs 
of special interest to Kaypro users: 
VD025, TOUR20, and DDRAW (a 
graphics package I'll cover in a 
future column). 


VD025 is a WordStar-like text edi- 
tor whose virtues are speed and 
small size. It's fast; when you jump 
from the beginning to the end of a 
file, even a 50K one, you're there 
immediately, a real treat for people 
used to WordStar's constant disk 
grinding. And it's small, only 7K— 
quite an achievement considering 
the features crammed into that 
space. (WordStar takes up around 
80K in three files.) Because VD025 
is so small, it loads quickly and fits 
easily on disks where there's no 
room for WordStar. 

Versions of VDO have been avail- 
able for the Osborne computer, with 
its special video, for a long time, but 
they wouldn't run on Kaypros or 
most other computers. Fortunately, 
software author James Whorton 
has now created VD025, so Kaypro 

Flea Market 

CP/M public domain can stillfog a mirror 

owners can use this nifty little 
program, too. 

• WordStar-style Commands. 
VD025 is a full-screen editor and 
can handle a text file up to 50K 
long. (The entire text file must fit in 
memory along with VD025, which 
can't buffer long files on a disk as 
WordStar can.) It has limited for- 
matting and printing and follows 
WordStar commands, behaving 
like WordStar in the non-document 
mode: no word-wrap and no soft 
carriage returns or other soft 

VD025 has most WordStar edit- 
ing commands. For movement, it 
uses the WordStar "cursor dia- 
mond" keys, except for A Z and aw It 
also has all the WordStar delete 
commands and can operate in 
either insert or overwrite mode. 

• Quick Commands. From the 
WordStar aq me nu, VD025 has 
AQB and A QK to move to the begin- 
ning or end of a block, and AQR and 
A QC to move to the beginning or 
end of the file. It also has the find 
(AQF) and find/replace (AQA) func- 
tions, which can search backward 
or forward and can ignore case or 
not. VD025 doesn't have the Ags, 
AQD, aqe, or AQX commands, but it 
has one new command, aqt, for 
changing tab stops to 2, 4, 8, or 16 

• Block Commands. From the 
WordStar ak menu, VD025 uses 
A KB and A KK to set the block mark- 
ers, as well as the usual WordStar 
commands to copy, delete, write, or 
read. A KS and A KX save files, and 
A KQ abandons. A KZ will erase the 
current file from memory. 

VD025 also has WordStar's AKF, 

to turn the disk directory display 
on and off, and A KL to log in a new 
disk. Because VD025 keeps your 
current file entirely in memory, you 
can change data disks in the mid- 
dle of editing a file, use A KL to log in 
the new disk, and then save your 
file to the new disk, without provok- 
ing a disk error. Just try that with 

• Limited Print Commands. 
VD025's print command is very 
limited. When you hit ARP VD025 
asks for "printer set-up codes," and 
you then enter whatever is needed 
to initialize your printer. When you 
press < RETURN >, VD025 sends 
the current file to the CP/M list 

VD025 has a aj help menu, 
which lets you review the program's 
other commands. From this menu, 
you can also set the help level to 
novice (full menus), normal (partial 
menus), or expert (no menus). 

An earlier version of VDO, called 
VD023 or VDO-KP, would lose 
characters in certain situations 
because it had no type-ahead 
buffer. In VD025, that problem has 
been solved by adding a 128-char- 
acter type-ahead buffer, similar to 

To install VD025, you use the 
accompanying program VINST11, 
which adapts VD025 to either old 
or new Kaypros, as well as to most 
other popular terminals. The pro- 
cess is simple and fast. 

• Some Drawbacks of VD025. 
VD025 has a couple of shortcom- 
ings. It does not visibly mark 
blocks, not even with <B> and 
<K>. That can lead to annoying 
errors, since you never know if 

20 Profiles 

Copyright © 1985 Ted Silveira. All rights reserved. 

you've marked a block correctly 
until you try to do something with 
it. Also, the A A (word-left) com- 
mand moves to the end of the pre- 
vious word rather than to the 
beginning, and the AKP print com- 
mand freezes up if the printer's not 
turned on. (I miss having the A Z and 
A W commands, too.) 

• What's VD025 Good For? 
VD025 is excellent for writing pro- 
grams and various kinds of com- 
mand files, such as SUBMIT files 
and dBASE II .CMD files. I also use 
it for making notes, doing entries in 
a free-form database, knocking out 
messages for uploading to bulletin 
boards, and even writing quick let- 
ters, ones so short it's not worth 
switching disks to fire up WordStar. 
I keep finding new uses for it 
because it's always handy. 


While VD025 is a new version of 
something familiar, TOUR20 is 
something new. Its author, Ed Tay- 
chert, calls it a "document hier- 
archy editor," but most people call 
it an "outline processor." 

• A Tool for Ideas. In brief, 
TOUR20 is a tool for handling ideas 
rather than for writing text. You jot 
down ideas in one-line headings, 
shuffle the headings around and 
arrange them hierarchically, with 

0. Contents 
1. What are the TOUR20 commands? 

1.1 For adding new headings 

1.1.1 APPEND 

1.1.2 INSERT 

1.2 For moving around 

1.2.1 UP and DOWN 

1.2.2 NEXT and BACK 

1.2.3 < INDEX > 

1.2.4 TOP 

1.3 For editing outlines 

1.3.1 CUT and PASTE 

1.3.2 CHANGE 

1.3.3 DELETE 

1.4 For viewing outlines 

1.4.1 VIEW and LIST 


1.4.3 ENTIRE 

1.5 For adding text 

1.5.1 INTRO 

1.5.2 SUMMARY 

1.6 For reading and writing files 

1.6.1 WRITE 

1.6.2 READ 

1.6.3 TYPE 




Check^ .^Balances 


Release 3.6 now available! 

" Expanded 180-page manual with step by step instructions 
and tutorial on advanced features. 
Combined reports for multiple checkbooks. 
Detailed balance sheet and budget reports. 
Check writer handles nearly any check. Configuration for five 
checks from Deluxe Computer Forms included. 
Color available for PCs and the clones. 
Print labels, cards and address envelopes from the Rolodex. 
Keep logs of mileage and travel for tax records. 
FAST!!! Totally full screen operation— correct any entry just 
by typing over like your word processor. Compiled in 
assembler for speed. Not a Basic program like Home 

Simple but powerful ENGLISH commands. 

Keeps a full year at a time— calendar or fiscal! 
Enter over 45 characters of memo/ notes with each transac- 
tion. Dollars & Sense makes little sense with no memo! 
CP/M users— We still support you as well as PC-DOS and 
plain, vanilla MS-DOS (even ANSI standard, Apple CP/M 
and HP-125 and 150)! 


80x24 screen. MS-DOS/PC-DOS-192K RAM. All 
require two floppies, RAM disk or hard disk. Specify 
SSDD or DSDD and computer type when ordering 
S3 P&H per order, COD $4 extra. Outside USA, $10 
P&H per order, no COD. Visa or MC. Manual only, 
$10+ P&H, refundable on purchase. 


948 Tularosa Drive 

Los Angeles, CA 90026 

(213) 661-2031 



1260 Westwood 

Redwood City, CA 94061 

(415) 369-2034 

All formats— Area representative 

J.A.C. Computer Services 

806 West 209th Street 

Torrance, CA 90502 

(2131 3294759 

All formats— Area representative 


144 Lakeside Drive 

Peachtree, GA 30269 

(404) 487-4617 

All formats— Area representative 

Collin County MLS 

1021 E. 15th 

Piano, TX 75074 


All formats— Area representative 

Mycroft Distributors 

P.O. Box 6045 

Tallahassee, FL 32314 

(904) 385-1141 

All formats— Write for catalogue 


Computer Network 
8S3 East 3300 South 
Salt Lake City, UT 84106 
Kaypro, MS-DOS 

Advent Products, Inc. 

3154-F East La Palma Avenue 

Anaheim, CA 92806 

(800) 821-8778 National 

(BOO) 521-7182 California 

All formats— Write for catalogue 

Country Computers 

107 E. Virginia Avenue 

Bonifay, FL 32425 

(904) 547-4007 

All Kaypro models, MS-DOS 

Advent Products, Inc. 

3154-F East La Palma Avenue 

Anaheim, CA 92806 

(800) 821-8778 National 

(800) 521-7182 California 

Mycroft Distributors 
P.O. Box 6045 

Tallahassee. FL 32314 
(904) 385-1141 

September 21 

The basic unit in TOUR20 is the 
heading, a one-line (up to 134 char- 
acters) piece of text. These can be 
entered one at a time or in an auto- 
matic append mode that lets you 
dash off a string of headings and 
worry about exactly where they 
belong later. A heading can also be 
inserted into an existing outline at 
any point, causing all following 
headings to be renumbered. 

• Moving Through the Outline. 
You move through the outline 
you've created by using UP and 
DOWN (which moves you up or 
down a level), NEXT and BACK 
(which moves you forward or back- 
ward one item, regardless of level), 
or < INDEX >. < INDEX > is the 
address of a particular heading, 
specified by its levels; in the outline 
above, the index 0.1. 3.1 would take 
you to the heading called "CUT and 

• Editing the Outline. When it's 

time to edit, you can CHANGE any 
heading (rewrite it, in other words). 
You can also DELETE any heading, 
which also deletes any subordinate 
headings so that deleting heading 
1.5 above would also delete 1.5.1 
and 1.5.2. 

• Viewing the Outline. While 
you're working, you see only a small 
part of your outline — the current 
heading and its immediate sub- 
headings. If your current heading 
were 1.4 above, you'd see only sub- 
headings 1.4.1, 1.4.2, and 1.4.3. 

TOUR20 has a strong 

personality; you could 

even say it has a 

theory about life. 

The most important editing 
tools are CUT and PASTE. CUT 
removes a heading and stores it in a 
buffer; PASTE takes the heading 
out of the buffer and places it wher- 
ever you want. You can cut 20 head- 
ings before pasting, but you must 
remember that the last heading cut 
is the first heading pasted. 


GRAF 3.0 l 49 95 l 69 


the complete BUSINESS and SCIENTIFIC printer graphics program 

* display floating point data directly from spreadsheets, 
data bases, and word processors (or the keyboard) in a 
wide variety of bar, pie, line, and scatter plots 

* plot and group up to 6 different variables on a single 
graph, distinguished by up to 14 different "fill-in" 
patterns and 3 different point-plotting symbols 

* menu driven operation supporting automatic graph 
scaling, labeling, and legend creation 

* program default values may be set once and for all 

M5-D0S / PC-DOS 


simple interface allows plotting floating-point data 
obtained from all popular programming languages 

1 plot any number of curves (e.g. experimental data vs. 
theoretical values! on the same graph, choosing from 
8 different plotting symbols. 

' add up to 5 different-density grid lines, and choose 
from a wide variety of numerical labeling options 

high/low graphs 

supported directly 

: if 

f 5 * 

K [ 


J ■ ■ . ■ 


TERMS; We ship via first 
for postage. NJ residents 
support MS-DOS (PC-DOS) 
Z80 computers (other than 
are available. (If you can 
with one of the following: 
Micronics Gemini 10X, 15X 
'IBM Plug 'n' Play" chips. 

class mail. The above prices include $5.00 for sA. (Orders outside USA require additional $5-00 
add 6% tax.) When ordering you MUST state your computer and printer make and model. We 
version 2.0 or later on computers with at least 192k RAM, and CP/W-80 version 2.2 or later on 
Apple) supporting a TPA of at least 54k (requires 64k of RAM). Most soft-sector disk formats 
read several formats, please send us a list.) GRAF 3-0 works with any printer fully compatible 
Epson FX, RX, L.X, MX (with GRAFTRAX), or LQ-1500; C. Itoh Prowriter; NEC S023A, Star 
, SG-10, SG-15, IBM Graphics Printer, Okidata 192, and earlier Okidata models equipped with the 
(If you have an Okidata printer, other than the 192, the Plug V Play chips are required !) 

GRAF 2-0 Update Policy: Returning your original GRAF 2.0 disk to MSC entitles you to $20.00 off the above prices. 


MSC Sys L ems „ , 


301 North Harrison Street 

CN5279, Suite 228 

Princeton, New Jersey 08540 

This "information hiding" is 
meant to help you concentrate on 
parts of your problem or project. 
You can use VIEW (or LIST) to see 
other parts of the outline, SUB- 
TREES to see everything below any 
particular heading (its subhead- 
ings, their sub-subheadings, and so 
on), and ENTIRE to see the com- 
plete outline. 

• Handling Text. TOUR20 has 
only two commands for adding text 
to the outline. INTRO will place a 
block of text before a group of sub- 
headings, and SUMMARIZE will 
place one after; both are limited. 

TOUR20 can also WRITE all or 
part of your outline into a disk file, 
READ another TOUR20 file into 
your current outline, and TYPE a 
text file on the screen without 
inserting it into the outline. 

• Using TOUR20. So, what's 
TOUR20 like to use? It has a very 
strong personality; you could even 
say it has a theory about life. 
TOUR20 believes you'll do best if 
you work with a top-down, divide- 
and-conquer approach, gradually 
breaking your project or problem 
into smaller and smaller pieces. It 
also believes you should concen- 
trate on one section at a time. You 
don't have to play along, but that's 
the way TOUR20 "wants" to work. 

• Working from the Top Down. 
In practice, you'll probably use 
TOUR20 one of two ways. You can 
use the top-down method by stat- 
ing your subject in a very general 
form ("What are the TOUR20 com- 

(continued on page 79) 

11 Profiles 



A Classic 

Form Fitting Kaypro Cover 

At last, the classic Kaypro dust cover you'll be proud 
to own and use. This first rate computer cover is made 
from a premium, lint free, static free, washable, free 
breathing, and fade resistant sailcloth. It comes in a rich 
looking Navy blue or Royal blue, and has a smart 
contrasting silver gray piping and trim that adds a 
superior finished look. Made to form fit and protect a 
Kaypro that is set up and ready to use. 

Photo: Form fitting Kaypro cover. 

For a limited time only, your price for this factory direct, 
custom made, sailcloth Quality Cover is $16.95. When 
ordering, remember to indicate color preference. This 

special low price is subject to change. You must be completely satisfied with 
this cover or we'll refund your money immediately. Order today. 

Richly tailored Inside and out. Look inside any of our Quality Covers, see the ultimate 
finishing; we use machines that sew with 3 needles so that no edge will ever unravel or shed lint. 
We stress perfection because you deserve the best. Compare for long-lasting satisfaction. 


$17.95 for one 
$34 for two 
$49 for three 
$62 for four 


Your Order For 

Any 2 Or More Items On 

These next 3 Pages Get a 


12 Foot 
Coiled Extension 

Cord for Your 
Kaypro keyboard 

Send for your free cord today. 

Enjoy that detachable keyboard. 

One Free Cord Per Customer 

Regarding this coiled retractible cord: Don't be 
fooled by cheap imitations. This cord has been 
specially manufactured to match the unique 
electrical requirements of the Kaypro ■ computer 
and meets demanding Kaypro-like specs. It is 
guaranteed to work with every model Kaypro 
II, IV, and 10. Don't settle for less from copycat 
advertisers. Other cords will fail and may hurt 
your system. Order your free cord today. 

This free offer applies to any 2 or more separate 
items. For example, a Kaypro Quality Cover 
and one template equals 2 items; 2 templates 
equal 2 items, but a single box of diskettes is 
one item. We must reserve the right to end this 
offer. Don't be disappointed, order today. 12 foot 
cords sold separately at $12.95 per cord. 

■ • Toll Free • ■ 

■ Order Desk Only ■ 

■ 800-533-8049 USA ■ 

■ 800-624-5628 CA ■ 

■ tOl ■ 

■ Information Calls ■ 

■ (805) 524-4189 ■ 


330 Central Avenue • Fillmore, CA 93015 

© 1985 Central Computer Products 

Kaypro is a trademark of the Kaypro Corporation 

Enemies of Kaypro®... 


Surges, and Noise 

The Kaypro has enemies. But now you can 
protect it from the mish mash of electrical 
currents that race through your home or 
business. Powerful up-surges of current can 
actually blow out your machine. Less 
powerful, barely noticeable spikes, surges, and 
noise can silently degrade your system in 
time, ruining chips, destroying data, and 
causing expensive service calls. 

The Kaypro manual states, 'Line filtering 

will protect your Kaypro... from power surges or other undesirable 
occurrences from the power source." Surge protection will help your Kaypro 
provide years of trouble-free service. Also, if you plan to use your Kaypro 
to access information by modem, you must have a reliable high frequency 
noise (EMI/RFI) suppressor to insure against data loss and scrambling. 

There are many "toy" surge suppressors on the market. They are smartly colored, but beware. The performance 
difference is amazing. The best surge and noise suppressors on the market are made by Panamax. Our 
"Panamax Challenge Certificate" tells all. It is a startling comparison of Panamax quality with 11 other well- 
known brands. One aspect of this revealing report tells how Panamax responds to and cuts surges in 5 or less 
pico seconds, while most other suppressors respond at a comparatively slow 5 to 50 nanoseconds! 
Check our regular low prices. Try the Panamax of your choice for 15 days. Receive the "Panamax Challenge 
Certificate" with your purchase. If not completely satisfied with your purchase, return for immediate full refund. 
Your Kaypro deserves Panamax protection, the best there is. Order today. 

Matching sailcloth 
printer covers are $14.95 each. 
Complete list sent with order. 
New. Special two-piece Kaypro sailcloth cover. 
Set covers CPU and keyboard. $19.95 per set. 

Quality tailoring 
Easy care fabrics 
Attractive colors 
Professional appeal 


Learn Software Commands 

Super Now Available: 

_ _ Wordstar/MailMerge 

bUper raSI dBase II, CalcStar 

Time-saving Kleertex templates are made from a 
durable, non-glare plastic, and can be put on 
and lifted off the keyboard instantly. The 
software commands on Kleertex templates are 
easy to read and are conveniently arranged in 
alphabetical order. With a Kleertex template on 

your keyboard, software commands are only a glance away, at your fingertips. This makes it easy to 
learn programs that come with your Kaypro. Stop going back to the book to get a software 
command. Now you can learn software commands super fast, so you can make better use of your 
powerful programs. The expertly organized Wordstar/Mailmerge template, for example, gets you 
into word processing in half the time . A special dBase II template cuts through the learning curve 
like a knife and gets you programming sooner. Kleertex templates for CalcStar, Perfect Writer/Filer 
and Perfect Calc get you moving fast on these programs too. Once you try Kleertex templates, you'll 
wonder how you ever got along without these useful tools. Central's special price for one template is 
$17.95. Choose any two templates for $34 and save. If you like, you may combine purchase of any 
of these four templates for super savings. Complete satisfaction is guaranteed or money-back. Makes 
learning software a breeze. Great value. Order today. 


Description List Price 

"Spikes and surges 
can be the greatest 
threat to your computer 
outside a 4 year old 
child with a jelly 
sandwich aimed for 
the disk drive slot." 

2 outlets, 


$ 79.00 

$ 59.00 

4 outlets, 


$ 89.00 

$ 69.00 

6 outlets, 


$ 99.00 

$ 79.00 




$ 99.00 



$ 89.00 

$ 69.00 



6 outlets LC S RB NF. 

D: Connects direct to grounded wall jack. 
LC: Includes 6 foot long heavy duty line cord. 

S: Includes illuminated on/off switch. 
NF: Includes EMI/RFI noise filter. 
RB: Includes reset button. 
OL: Includes outlet. 
PJ: Includes 2 phone jack receptacles. 
UA: Includes under voltage alarm/brown out protection. 
All units include the added security of a 4 amp fuse. 
Unique Panamax EMI/RFI noise filters provide 
protection in common and transverse mode. Essential for 
modem communications, multi-user stations, etc. 
All Panamax untts are factory guaranteed for 60 months. 

"Power line -associated problems 
are estimated to cause nearly 70 
to 90 percent of the malfunctions 
in the IBM PC." 

"Overvoltage can be fatal 
to both data and hardware alike." 
P.C. Magazine, March 1983 







acrylic tray 

holds 70 


diskettes. Flip-up lid keeps out dust, 

debris, and moisture, and locks 

securely to guard your important work. 

Comes with 7 dividers that make for 

easy filing and keep floppies upright to 

prevent bending, warping, and 

scratching. Tough metal lock never 

comes in contact with diskettes because 

it is enclosed in a plastic housing. 

Super value at $23 for one, or $21 

each if you buy 2 or more. Keep prying 

eyes and sticky fingers away from your 

important data. Order today. 


Top quality, individually tested 36 pin 
Centronics-type standard parallel cables 
for all model Kaypros. These are made 
to work hard and long. Guaranteed. 
5 ft cables ... $19.95 each 
10 ft cables ... $25.95 each 

Top quality, individually tested ribbon 
modem RS 232C cables designed with 
reinforced clamps for a sure continuous 
connection and made especially for 
your Kaypro. These work every time. 
2 ft cables ... $14.95 each 
5 ft cables ... $16.95 each 

* # # 

800-533-8049 USA Central Computer Products 800-624-5628 CA 

Please turn page 

SmartKey II Plus Combo 

—includes SmartPrint II Plus and Screen Smarts 

Everyone's favorite keyboard redefining 
program is now on sale. Saves you thousands 
of keystrokes. SmartKey does not interfere 
with the regular function of your keyboard. 
Once you've tried it, computing will never be 
the same. Lets you save complex command 
codes, boilerplate paragraphs, inventory 
numbers, or whatever, and inject any of them 
into your work with the stroke of a single key. 

Central's super priced $45 SmartKey II 
Plus combo pak includes a free copy of 
SmartPrint II Plus, a program that greatly 
enhances the operation of dot matrix printers, 
and a free copy of Paul Golding's $15.95 
book, Screen Smarts, The Computer Tamer's 
Guide. This book tells how you can use 
SmartKey to turn your computer into a 
supercharged mean machine. Save time and 
money. Order today to get this hard hitting 
$115 software & book combo for only $45. 

Text Filing Machine 

Central Computer Products 

330 Central Avenue 

Fillmore, California 93015 

(805) 524-4189 

Mail Order service you can depend on. 

• Personal Service 

• Low Prices 
Fast deliveries 

Price Protection Policy 

Central Computer will meet of beat any price 
listed in this magazine on products also advertised 
in our ads. If you see a lower price, please tell us. 
We'll beat that price and pay shipping too. 
Try our lightning fast service today. Thank you. 

Turn your Kaypro in to a powerful text 
filing machine. SuperFile is a textual matter 
database manager unlike any other. It puts 
you in control of your information. It allows 
you to easily store and retrieve notes, letters, 
random thoughts, contracts, depositions, 
invoices, new product information, sales 
reports, reference articles, scripts, abstracts, 
bibliographies, customer profiles, and much 
more. SuperFile accepts as many as 65,000 
entries per database; allows 512,000 
keystrokes per record, each of which can 
have up to 250 keywords; and indexes 
information you've stored on as many as 
255 diskettes per database. Powerful. 

Input for a SuperFile database comes from 
your word processor, so you can easily 
include information you already have into a 
database without having to re-key it. No 
fancy fields to define. This is a completely 
free-form database system. No programming 
language to learn. There's nothing difficult 
here. You can be up and running within 
minutes. SuperFile uses logical searching 
procedures to find your information fast. 
Save yourself the time and effort of filing 
and cross-filing information by hand or in 
overly structured data fields. SuperFile lists at. jjjjj JJ 1 ^ j"^ s 
$195. Central's price is $145. Order today. and i et you 

Full Power Computing 

T/Maker Integrated is a highly acclaimed 
powerhouse program that can turn your CP/M 
Kaypro into a computing workhorse. At last, 
you can enjoy productive computing like never 
before. Imagine doing full-featured word 
processing, relational database management, 
spreadsheet analysis, horizontal bar chart 
graphics, and checking your spelling all within 
the same program. No more switching back and 
forth between barely compatible programs to 
accomplish these simple tasks. T/Maker 
Integrated is universally acknowledged as a 
unique integrated software system that is just 
plain easy to learn. There is an alternative to 
doing things the hard way. T/Maker can put the 
hidden and largely untapped power of your 
Kaypro at your command. T/Maker Integrated is 
regularly $450. Central is proud to offer this 
outstanding package for the low, low 
introductory price of $179. Yes, this includes 
the entire feature-packed T/Maker package, so 
please treat yourself to this excellent super 
productive software today. Experience the 
power of true software integration on your 
Kaypro. Order T/Maker today. Get it fast. 

The Kaypro can 
dump a file 
faster than a 
printer can 
accept it. This 
device will catch 
the file, quiet 





Stop Tearing Up 
Your Disk Drives 

compute again. 

64 K P-P 
64 K P-S 
64 K S-S 
64 K S-P 
Two Cables 

$ 56.00 

$ 29.00 

64 K Stores and spools files as large as 64 K. 

P-P Parallel Kaypro port to parallel printer port. 

P-S Parallel Kaypro port to serial printer port. 

S-S Serial Kaypro port to serial printer port. 

S-P Serial Kaypro port to parallel printer port. 

If you're using your Kaypro as a printer 
buffer instead of a computer, you may be 
tearing up your disk drives. Disk drives are 
mechanical devices, they are often the first 
parts of a computer to go sour. No 
wonder. Everytime you feed your printer a 
file, the drives whirl madly until the printer 
has accepted the entire file. Sometimes 
this takes a long, long time. 

If you're tired of hearing your disk 

drives grind down, you need a printer buffer. The best 

performance and price buffer on the market is the Consolink 

MicroSpooler. This computer-like tool absorbs files as fast 

as your computer can send them, and then patiently feeds or 

spools them to your printer a few bytes at a time. 

The MicroSpooler is an intelligent, feature-packed buffer. It is easy to install and operate. Merely 

place it between your computer and printer, then connect it with two cables, and feed files as 

large as 64K within seconds to your letter quality or dot matrix printer. The instant the transfer is 

complete, you can operate your computer again. The MicroSpooler does the rest. 

The MicroSpooler comes in a variety of configurations. You can link your Kaypro to any popular 

printer with two inexpensive cables. Please check our low MicroSpooler prices. You won't find a 

more feature-packed or reasonably priced spooler around. Try the MicroSpooler of your choice 

for 15 days. If you are not completely satisfied with your purchase, return it for an immediate full 

refund. Your Kaypro deserves this attractive and useful accessory. Order a compact and 

powerful MicroSpooler for your computer today. Works with all model computers. 

Cables Set includes one special male to female 
connector and one male-male connector. 
"Please tell us model and type of printer 
Photo- you're connecting to your computer. 

64 K P-P 

Includes these unique features: 

• Status digital readout 

• Multiple copy function 

• Temporary pause function 

• Sleek internal power supply 

• Comprehensive self test routine 

• Slimline attractive casing 

• Front panel reset 

• 12 month factory guarantee 

Toll Free Order Desk 

800-533-8049 USA 
800-624-5628 CA 

Product Description 

List Central 

Kaypro Software 



$ 39.95 

$ 33.00 

VIBasic Interactive training 

$ 39.95 

$ 33.00 

Microplan teaches how to use 

$ 75.00 

$ 57.00 

Vlultiplan software. Fast tesults. 

$ 75.00 

$ 57.00 


$ 75.00 

$ 57.00 


Turbo Pascal 3.0 

$ 69.95 

$ 58.00 

Turbo Toolbox, Software Tools 

$ 49.95 

$ 44.00 

Turbo Tutor, Step by Step 

$ 34.00 

$ 29.00 


Checks & Balances 

$ 74.95 

$ 54.00 


Quick Check + AR $195.00 $149.00 

Retail Inventory + Q Register $395.00 $289.00 

Quick Check Money Manager $ 95.00 $ 69.00 

— Recommended for comprehensive ease of use 


Magic Print • $195.00 

Magic Bind • $250.00 

Magic Index — includes • $295.00 

— All superior Wordstar enhancers 


VersaBusiness Series 

VersaLedger II $149.95 

Any other modules $ 99.95 


The Real Estate Consultant $399.00 $349.00 

with The Creative Loan Consultant 

— Don't buy or sell property without this software 


Home Accountant Plus $ 99.95 $ 79.95 


$ 79.50 


KBAR, K-10 backup utility 

$ 89.95 

$ 69. 00 



$ 99.00 

$ 84.00 

Datebook II 



Footnote and Pair • 

$ 99.00 

$ 79.00 

Grammatik -k 

$ 75.00 

$ 69.00 

Hyper Typer, Typing Tutor 

$ 39.95 

$ 32.00 

Index * 

$ 99.00 

$ 87.00 

Milestone, Project Planner 



Bibliography and Footnote 






Writer's Pak — includes 



all * products and Random H 

ouse Checker 

— Call for prices on other DM or 

PT products 





General Ledger 



— easiest to use full-featured GL 



FYI 3000 



SuperFile with Sort & Merge 



Free form textual matter database managers 

— Index material spread over 255 diskettes 



$ 39.95 

$ 37.00 


$ 49.95 

$ 46.00 


$ 39.95 

$ 37.00 


$ 44.95 

$ 42.00 


$ 39.95 

$ 37.00 


$ 39.95 

$ 37.00 

Zork II & III each 

$ 44.95 

$ 42.00 

— Call for prices on other Infocom products 


Eureka, Disk Cataloger $ 50.00 

helps you find the right file instantly 



MBasic Compiler 




Uniform Kaypro II/2 

Reads 32 + machine formats 
Uniform Kaypro 2X/1V or 10 

Reads 90 + machine formats 

$ 69.95 
$ 69.95 

$ 49.95 
$ 49.95 



Mite Communications 

Mite Plus Terminal Emulations 

$ 99.00 

$ 89.00 
$ 99.00 


StatPak $495.00 


+ 4i p\ease turn page 800-533-8049 USA Central Computer Products 800-624-5628 CA 

* # 

Toll Free Order Desk 

800-533-8049 USA 
800-624-5628 CA 

Product Description 



Kaypro Software - 



Personal Pearl 



— Easy to use, top flight database 



Plu Perfect Writer CP/M 2.2E 

$ 39.95 

$ 31.00 


$ 45.00 

$ 38.00 

CP/M 2.2E only 

$ 32.00 

$ 27.00 

Date Stamper 

$ 39.00 

$ 29.00 

Data Stamper, General CP/M 

$ 49.00 

$ 39.00 





— World class database manager. 

Many built 


super features including multikey file indexing 


Grafiks 2.4 /1>S^ 


$ 99.00 

Graphic Express ^^3J^ 


$ 99.00 

Office Express Client Billing ^H# 



Stardrive, Wordstar Tools 



— with thesaurus, checker, graph 

cs, math pak 




$ 99.00 



$ 99.00 





— Dynamic computerized sales generating tool 


Fancy Font 2.0 




dFastest — 

$ 89.00 

$ 69.00 

sorts dBase II files 33 times faster 



$ 24.94 

$ 22.00 


$ 34.95 

$ 29.95 

Word Wiggle 

$ 29.95 

$ 27.00 


$ 49.95 

$ 45.00 

— Call for prices on other Toolworks products 


SuperCalc 2 




Rembrandt 3.0 

$ 79.95 

$ 52.00 


The Accounting Partner 



Accounting Partner Integrated 



Upgrade AP to AP Integrated 




Disk Doctor 


$ 75.00 


T/Maker Integrated 




Proportional Star 

$ 75.00 

$ 69.00 

Math Star 

$ 49.95 

$ 45.00 



DS300 Baud Smart Modem 



DS1200 Baud Smart Modem 



— Internal modems for all model Kaypros 


PowerMax — 



250 Watt Battery Back-up 


256k CoPower-88 MSDOS 



256k CoPower-88 Plus 



— Plus boards are expandable up 

1 megabyte 

— Use as RAM disk or MSDOS computer (Qii* 


Dysan SSDD Kaypro 2/II disks 


$ 23.00 

Dysan DSDD 2X/IV/10 disks 


$ 29.00 

3M SSDD Kaypro 2/II diskettes 


$ 18.00 

3M DSDD 2X, IV/10 diskettes 


$ 23.00 

3M Head Cleaning Kit 

$ 32.00 

$ 21.95 


Compleat Kaypro II, IV & 10 

$ 16.95 

$ 15.00 

CP/M for the Kaypro 

$ 16.95 

$ 15.00 

with an Introduction to dBase II 

Kaypro WP Plain & Simple 

$ 13.95 

$ 12.50 

Using CP/M on Kaypro 10 

$ 19.50 

$ 18.00 

Screen Smarts, Tamer's Guide 

$ 15.95 

$ 12.95 

Free yellow Hi-Liter pen sent with every book order. 
Prices, specifications, and offers subject to change without notice. 

Do You Wish Writing Was Easier? 

If you need to write, or want to write clearly, your Kaypro and the software program 
Punctuation and Style can help you get there faster. It improves, clarifies, and enriches your 
writing by identifying sentences with misused, redundant, faulty, cliched, or erroneous phrases, 
and shows you how to improve them. It helps you rewrite and check your work by quickly 
marking and annotating your files for easy correction. In addition to computer -fast identification 
of awkward, muddy, pompous, and wordy sentence structure, it also finds missing or improper 
punctuation, unbalanced quotes, wrong abbreviations, faulty capitalizations, and much more. 
Punctuation and Style actually improves your writing by mercilessly pointing out grammatical 
errors. After a few weeks with Oasis System's Punctuation and Style your writing is bound to 
become more dynamic, expressive, and honest. In time, you'll stop worrying about grammar and 
work on projecting ideas instead. After all, that's what writing is about. 

Punctuation and Style makes writing and rewriting much easier. The list price of Punctuation and 
Style is $125. Central's price is $95. Experience the power of this valuable "Punctuation 
Checking and Writing Improvement Software" yourself. Order today to get this program fast. 

Punctuation and Style works on files created with Wordstar or Perfect Writer. It comes with an easy to use, clearly written 
manual and is packaged in an attractive binder. Join thousands who now write with more confidence, faster, and better. 

Perfect Kaypro® Stand 

Simple, strong, 
sturdy, safe. 
These words 
describe an 
angled stand 
that provides 
a perfect spot to 
place your Kaypro. 

This stand is made from rounded, steel rods 
covered with a thick, shiny, soft, black 
polymer material that protects your Kaypro 
and table top from scratches. Unlike flat wood 
or acrylic panels used in other stands, the 
tough supporting rods of the Smart Stand 
(TM) do not obstruct air flow. In fact, since 
your Kaypro is lifted off the table top and 
gently angled by this stand, air rises up from 
under your computer, and flows freely 
through it to help keep it cool. When you're 
finished computing, you can slide the 
keyboard completely under the stand to create 
a working area on your desk. The Smart 
Stand is a super value at $34.95. Try it for 15 
days. If not completely satisfied, send it back 
for a full refund. Matching 80 or 132 column 
printer stands are only $19.95 or $23.95. 
Order today to get the Smart Stand fast. 


330 Central Avenue, Dept. 9A> 
Fillmore, California 93015 
(805) 524-4189 
Dear Central, 

Please send me the items listed below. I want fast, 
friendly service. Remember to include my free 12 foot 
extension cord. I understand there is no charge for this 
Icord if I purchase 2 or more items from these 3 pages. My 
check, money order, or card no. is enclosed. Thanks. 
Description Price 

90,000 Word 
Thesaurus at 
Your Fingertips 

Synonym Finder by Writing Consultants 
is a 90,000 word thesaurus that is 
guaranteed to make you and your 
Wordstar a precise and powerful online 
writing machine. Synonym Finder is so 
easy to use that after one or two searches 
there's no turning back. Your speaking 
and writing vocabulary will improve 
dramatically as you use this program to 
display and study a rich variety of words 
at the push of a key. 

Synonym Finder was compiled by a team 
of lexicographers. It is extremely fast and 
works within Wordstar, so you never 
have to leave your file to use it. Just put 
your cursor on a word in your text, press 
the escape key twice, and a list of 
synonyms appears. Then press a key if 
you want to select and automatically 
place an alternate word in your onscreen 
text. Synonym Finder will help you find 
the exact word you need to properly 
express your thought. Synonym Finder 
retails at $124. Central's current low 
introductory price is $69. This offer may 
not be repeated. Please order today. 

Attention: Synonym Finder works with all Kaypros. 
Gives Wordstar text files new vim, vigor, and punch. 

Travel Case 

This full featured, 
padded carrying 
case is made from a 
super-material called 
"cordura." This 
material is rip, shred, 
and water resistant. 
The Coverman Kaypro case comes fully 
padded and lined, so your Kaypro is 
protected from unexpected bumps and jolts. 
Since your Kaypro is completely enclosed in 
this case, it keeps rain, sand, and other debris 
out of your machine. The Coverman case 
comes with external carrying handles and a 
detachable strap with a non-slip shoulder pad 
that comes in handy when you have to carry 
your Kaypro over a long distance. There is 
also a large interior pocket perfect for 
transporting manuals and diskettes. The 
Coverman Kaypro carrying case is regularly 
$79.95. Central is proud to offer this expertly 
constructed case at $59.95. Please indicate 
your choice of color: silver-gray, dark blue, or 
brown. All straps and carrying handles are 
black. You must be completely satisfied with 
your purchase of this handsome travel case or 
receive a refund immediately. Order today. 

* # # 

Central Computer Products 

# # # 

Kaypro Model 





CA Resident 6% Tax 

Postage & Handling 

$ 3.00 

□ Navy blue 

LJ Send free catalog 

Q Check enclosed 

□ Visa/Mastercard #_ 

□ Royal blue 

□ Send free 12 foot cord 
LJ Money Order enclosed 

D American Express Card * _ 

Exp. Date Sig. _ 

Name . 


. State. 


Credit card phone orders welcomed. Call toll free. 

To order by mail use coupon, letter, or photo copy. Thank you. 

© 1985 Central Computer Products 

No More Pencils, 
No More Books 

Finding educational software for CP/M 

by Jim Spickard 

Educational programs for CP/M computers: they 
exist, but you have to be a software sleuth to find 
them. They're not so much hidden as they are 
out-hyped by the graphics-oriented programs utilized 
by other operating systems. Color and animation make 
for a more enticing ad, so those are the programs you 
see in most magazines. 

If you look beyond the razzle-dazzle, you'll find that 
CP/M programs pertaining to education abound. To fill 
you in on what's out there, we've chosen to adopt a 
broad definition of "educational." This definition takes 
in everything from drills for children to administrative 
tools for teachers. 

While no CP/M computer can match the wealth of 
programs written for the Apple, Commodore, Atari or 
TRS-80, there's still a lot of useful stuff out there. From 
grammar-schooler to adult, there's something for just 
about everyone. 

And despite popular belief, more is being written. As 
software developers realize the potential market in all 
the CP/M-based hardware still very much in use, our 
educational choices are apt to grow. We won't get flashy 
high-tech video games. We probably won't even get 
many programs that use the newer Kaypros' graphics 

But good, effective learning tools are already avail- 
able, and more are on the way. You just have to hunt a 
while to find them. This article should make your 
hunting easier. 

Software types 

Schoolhouse software comes in several types. First 
there's the kids' stuff— what we usually think of when 
the term "educational software" is mentioned. These 
programs give one-on-one instruction, freeing the 
teacher for other tasks. Drills and games teach every- 
thing from arithmetic and state capitals to chemistry 
and nutrition. 

The best of these programs entertain while they 
teach. The worst are as boring as the wearisome ped- 

ants they replace. Though dancing color pictures won't 
grace CP/M Kaypro screens, Adventure's popularity 
proves such embellishments unnecessary. The "graph- 
ics of the mind" — when guided by good software — can 
motivate learning quite nicely. 

Software that teaches you about other software 
makes up a second category. Some run like a typical 
schoolroom, where the subjects are CP/M and Word- 
Star, not calculus. They guide you through your soft- 
ware, letting you practice simple tasks with assistance 
always at hand. (One program even prints a graduation 
certificate when you've passed its tests.) 

Logo is perhaps the most imaginative such learning 
tool (see "It's Not Just For Kids" in the September 1984 
PROFILES). You think you're just moving turtles, but 
you're actually learning how to program. 

Then there are programs for teachers. Automated 
gradebooks and test preparation routines aid teachers 
in keeping track of student performance while cutting 
down out-of-class drudgery. Richer and more lively 
teaching follows. (And, one hopes, less teacher burn- 
out.) Here Kaypros can compete with the "big boys," 
and at a price most teachers can afford. 

I'll take each of these categories in turn, and sample 
the software I've found. You'll get an idea of what's out 
there — though there's surely some I've missed. 

Math time 

Let's start with the young 'uns. A lot of kids have trouble 
with math. Come to think of it, so do the rest of us, as 
my bank faithfully informs me every month. 

Resource Software International (RSI) sells 12 pro- 
gram modules covering basic arithmetic for grades 1 
-5, seven more for grades 5-8, and a high school series 
covering algebra, trigonometry and calculus. The pro- 
grams emphasize drill: "no bells and whistles," the 
manual says, "just honest-to-goodness course mate- 
rial." They don't teach concepts, but kids can practice 
their skills at whatever pace they want. 

Let's Have Fun Counting and Let's Have Fun Com- 

Copyright © 1985 Jim Spickard. All rights reserved. 

September 27 

paring (for grades 1-3) start kids off counting stars and 
letters, typing in correct answers at the prompt. Then 
come the four basic operations (addition, subtraction, 
multiplication and division), each with several pro- 
grams of increasing complexity. Help comes with the 
touch of a button, and students are encouraged to redo 
lessons until they've mastered them. Different ques- 
tions are presented each time to prevent boredom. 

Of course, drill is drill: it's pretty boring by nature. 
How much thrill can there be in subtracting 3,287 from 
4,003? But you only really learn arithmetic by prac- 
tice, and RSI is a whole lot more fun than the flashcards 
I remember. 

The "graphics of the 
mind, " guided by good 
software, can motivate 

learning quite nicely. 

For one thing, you aren't embarrassed when Sally 
Smith gets the answer right and you don't. Failures 
aren't so public when it's just you and your computer. 

Besides math, RSI publishes units on junior high 
school English— vocabulary, grammar and letter writ- 
ing — and senior high school chemistry. Their Auto- 
mated Test Author (see below) lets you set up drills on 
any subject. They also offer the College Board Score 
Builder for help in taking the SAT (reviewed elsewhere 
in this issue). 

Teacher's Aide, a bargain from Dynacomp, is sim- 
ilar to RSI's grade school units in that it drills on the 
four basic operations of arithmetic and allows self- 
paced learning. It lets you work on addition, subtrac- 
tion, multiplication and division at five different skill 
levels. You can break your work down into steps if you 
want — just like you do on paper. Since the program 
runs under MBASIC, it's simple to add features. I'd clean 
up the screen, and perhaps include a few more instruc- 
tions. And I'd program it to enter numbers from right to 
left like we do in real life. (Think about how you 
multiply.) But for plain vanilla it's just fine as is. 

If you tire of drills (and who doesn't) you might look 
at Numbers and Math, by Advent Products. According 
to MarkSwanson, its author, the disk is game-oriented: 
two-person number guessing, an imitation car race 
called "MPG" (miles per gallon) and several others. It's 
aimed at the preschool to third grade set. 

A companion disk, Letters and Language, carries 
several word games that range from helping kids learn 
the alphabet to building vocabulary. Swanson says 
some of its games will please older kids, even adults. 
Both disks are written in MBASIC, so you can easily 
modify them if you want. 

I don't know about Swanson's games, but drill pro- 
grams for younger children have one flaw. To run a 

program, you have to read. To get right answers, you 
must follow instructions printed on the screen. Can 
first-graders read well enough to know they're sup- 
posed to count the stars and type in the proper 
number? RSI, particularly, doesn't match its instruc- 
tions to its grade level. And since not all the questions 
on its quizzes are of the same type, you can't just turn 
little kids loose here: you have to help them along. 

And the winner is ... 

But enough of math! How about some more creative 

The most enjoyable programs I found were Nut- 
ribytes and Eco-Paradise from Public Interest Soft- 
ware, two games that teach nutritional and ecological 

Eco-Paradise has two parts : a game in which you try 
to get to from the City of Darkness to Paradise by the 
shortest route, while avoiding the toxic waste dump; 
and an "Eco-Test" that rates the ecological soundness 
of your lifestyle. 

The game is like a quiz. Right answers move you 
ahead, while wrong answers take you miles from your 
goal (but bring you closer to the dump). You can call on 
a friendly ecologist for help on the tough questions; the 
answers to early questions help you later on. I never felt 
talked down to — just involved. 

"EcoTest" is more polemical. For example, you lose 
points for overheating your house, or for even owning a 
car, though fuel-efficiency helps. (So how are you sup- 
posed to get to work where public transit and close-in 
affordable housing are lacking?) But the program 
doesn't just blame the individual: you get points for 
political involvement to cure such social ills. 

Nutribytes has three modules: "Eats and Drinks" 
teaches basic nutrition; "Chemical Cuisine" teaches 
about food additives; and "Chef Pennypincher" helps 
you rate your current diet for wholesomeness and 

The first two, particularly, are full of useful informa- 
tion. Did you know that Yellow # 6, an artificial color, is 
probably safe, but Yellow # 5, much more widely used, 
causes allergic reactions in those sensitive to aspirin? 
Or that packers use ferrous gluconate to turn olives 
black? (It's a safe additive, unlike about 50 percent of 
the chemicals currently used.) Now you do, thanks to 

These programs are winners because they make 
learning fun. The subjects could be deadly dull, despite 
their importance. But here I learned without even 
noticing it. The care that went into the design of these 
two programs shows. 

Computer literacy 

As you can see, I prefer games to drills. Drills have their 
place, and rote learning on a computer beats flash- 
cards all hollow. But conceptual learning needs some- 
thing more. Fortunately American Training Inter- 

28 Profiles 

national (ATI) and Software Academy have done 
something more with their computer literacy products. 

Let's take ATI first. ATI publishes two sets of pro- 
grams to aid the computer user. Skill Builder intro- 
duces the novice to computers, operating systems and 
the simpler software like Perfect Writer and MicroPlan. 
Training Power provides both beginning and ad- 
vanced instruction in such complex programs as 
dBASE II and WordStar. 

Training takes place on a split screen. Half the screen 
simulates the software or hardware, while the other 
half provides step by step instructions. By practicing 
the actual keystrokes, you get hands-on experience. An 
electronic guide makes sure you don't crash and burn. 

I tried the CP/M Skill Builder. While not deep, it's an 
adequate introduction to DIR, TYPE, STAT, PIP, ERA, 
SYSGEN and some of the other CP/M utilities. It even 
introduces ED, that seldom-used line editor that I 
occasionally wish I knew better (but don't want to brave 
the CP/M manual to learn) . It leaves out a lot of informa- 
tion, but the basics are there. 

Software Academy's Professor 3T takes a different 
tack. Professor 3T wants to make you "computer liter- 
ate," and gives you lots of general concepts while 
introducing you to your operating system. Modules 
cover CP/M, MS-DOS and CP/M-86, but not application 
software like WordStar. 

3T is built like a school, complete with registration, 
classes, tests and diplomas. There's even a teaching 
assistant, Genie, to help you out when times get rough. 
(Be warned: Genie's sense of humor can only be 

Drill programs for 

young children have 

one flaw: to run them, 

you have to read. 

described as "strange.") 

Like most schools, 3T relies a lot on lectures. This 
gets tiresome, since it's even harder to read a green-on- 
black screen than to listen to a droning professor. But 
there's just enough interaction (and testing) to keep you 
moving. And the payback is the wealth of material you 
get. 3T's CP/M version treats DIR, STAT, PIP and so on in 
depth — much more thoroughly than does ATI, except 
that ED isn't covered. 

The program has a glossary of computer terms, a 
general introduction to personal computing and other 
attributes that recommend it to the novice. Software 
Academy expected to release its enhanced version 
before press time. This version incorporates more user- 
response during the lectures (good!). A special arti- 
ficial intelligence routine will individualize instruc- 
tion, gearing it toward the topics where you need 
special help. 

If you just want to learn BASIC, you might try the 
BASIC Tutorial from Advent Products, which covers 
all but the most advanced aspects of BASIC. 

Teacher's aides 

As a teacher, what's the most wearisome thing you have 
to do? If you're like me, there's no question: it's making 
and grading exams! No matter what your pedagogical 
theories, exams are drudgery. I always put them off, 
and then have to stay up the night before, deciding 
which questions I want to ask. And I've got to be sure 
this year's exam isn't too much like last year's. They 
learn capitalism (exam-selling) young where I work. 

Automated Test Author ($89.99 from RSI) solves 
some of these problems. It stores test questions and 
constructs exams automatically, varying the ques- 
tions according to your needs. 

Let's take my sociology class as an example. My 
students need to master a 100-term vocabulary, and I 
like them to answer 10 or so short-essay questions on 
each test. Sometimes I use fill-ins, multiple-choice and 
true/false for the facts they just can't avoid. This year I 
typed in the terms and about 60 essay ideas and 
instructed ATA to choose 25 terms and several essays 
for the final exam. 

ATA did exactly that, choosing the questions at 
random. Each test is different. I made three versions, 
one for the class as a whole and two others for students 
having to be tested at special times. No worry about 
possible cheating; no having to type all night. I just 
pushed a few buttons and watched the exams roll off 
the printer. 

And there'll be even less work next year. I'll revise the 
questions a bit, reset the random generator and have a 
new test to play with. 

One problem, though: ATA can only write exams to 
the printer or to the screen as interactive drills. It won't 
write to disk for later editing. 

This means that if you want to leave the multiple 
choice off a particular exam, you have to toss out those 
pages after they're printed. (You'll get used to exam 
pages numbered 1, 2, 4, 7 ... ) You also can't revise 
headings, footings and other decorations, but RSI 
made some pretty good choices here— the exams are 
easy to read. 

If you don't like the particular questions the program 
has chosen, you can only run it again until it comes up 
with something acceptable — no after-the-fact editing 
is possible. 

But the idea is good, and it saves me enough work 
that I'll live with it. 

ATA lets students take tests right at the Kaypro and 
scores all questions with true/false, multiple choice 
and single-word answers. (It can't score essays for 
obvious reasons.) It works just like RSI's other drills 
(surprise), which means it's a pretty good learning tool. 
Master Drill, by Dynacomp, also lets you set up 
interactive drills on any subject. Do your students need 

September 29 

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without checking to see if 
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Wrong answers are selected at random from among 
the right answers to other questions. A score is kept, 
and the questions missed are repeated until they're 
done properly. 

Memory helps you 

memorize text: you're 

prompted word by word 

until you can repeat it. 

Admittedly the program's not as complex as the 
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Language Tutor works like flashcards: you build a 
file of "words" and "definitions" (which could be math, 
for all the program cares) and are then quizzed for the 
right answers. These must be typed exactly. You get 
three tries, then the right answer appears. I tried a 
"State Capitals" test on both Master Drill and Lan- 
guage Tutor, and frankly I prefer the latter. I learn more 
by direct answers than I do by multiple choice. And the 
program is easier to use. 

One problem, though: the "chiding comments" Lan- 
guage Tutor gives to wrong answers are downright 
offensive. They vary so you won't get bored, but you 
may shut off the machine in disgust. I spoke with 
Telion, and they said they'd tone them down. Positive 
reinforcement makes for better learning, in my view. 

Memory helps you memorize texts. You type in 
whatever you want to learn and are prompted word by 
word until you can repeat it correctly. Words can be 
entered by typing just the first letter, so typing slips 
don't strike you down. You can peek ahead, or set the 
program to return to the beginning after each mistake. 
It counts your errors and lets you review the lines you 
missed until you get them right. Actors, particularly, 
will find this program useful. Theology students who 
want to memorize Scripture will also be pleased. 

I saw Memory in beta-test, but found no bugs or 
objectionable features. The final product should be out 
by the time you read this. 

Various companies market automated gradebooks, 
another standard teacher's need. Teacher's 
Gradebook, also from Dynacomp, looks quite flexible. 
It can record up to 15 small classes and five large ones 
on each disk, keeping track of grades, absences and so 
on for each. You can even set a password to keep records 
from prying eyes. 

Now if someone would automate all those state- 
mandated achievement forms, so we teachers wouldn't 
have to spend our lives doing paperwork . . . 

Loose ends 

Adventurous souls may want to look into a couple of 
other programs that for various reasons I didn't get to 
see in action. 

Dynacomp markets Spell Master and Crypto, two 
word games that help build vocabulary and reading 
skills. The same company sells Management Simu- 
lator for educating proto-capitalists, and Trivia Mania 
for trivia buffs. 

Teachers who want to write their own modules 
might call on the Torricelli Series by The Answer in 
Computers. This set of programs helps you develop 
your own computer-assisted instruction, from soft- 
ware writing to presentation. 

And I'm sure there's more! The only way to find 
what's there is to go looking for it. Happy hunting! □ 
Jim Spickard teaches college sociology. He fre- 
quently reviews software for PROFILES. 

(continued on page 83) 

32 Profiles 

Kids and computers: A parent's perspective 

by Linda McPherson 

How do children learn? Psychologists, who rarely 
agree on anything, say "purpose" is an impor- 
tant ingredient. The child must have a need for 
acquiring a skill. Learning is the by-product of the 
child's attempt to meet that need. 

For young children, real learning depends on first- 
hand discovery and continuous experimentation, and 
the computer is patient teacher. I have found a number 
of programs and games that develop a variety of skills 
in children of different ages. 

Some of these are drill programs. They make fact- 
learning fun, and the child can work alone. Ones I have 
found valuable are Kaypro Educational Program- 
ming's States and Capitals, Spell, and Animal; and 
IFP Publishing's Kid.Math. 

In States and Capitals, the computer names a state. 
If the child responds by typing the correctly spelled 
capital, encouraging words are given. Wrong answers, 
including misspellings, are computer corrected. 

My ten-year-old had success with Spell. She found 
learning 25 spelling words each week difficult. The 
problem, common among children, was that she saw 
words as blocks of letters rather than as a specific 
sequence of them — she couldn't see the trees for the 
forest. We entered her spelling list into the computer 
each week. Each word was flashed onscreen, and after 
it disappeared, she entered the spelling. She was forced 
to concentrate on the individual letters through typing. 
At the end of the list, missed words were reviewed. 

(My daughter is an A+ speller now and no longer uses 
the drill. Why? Once children successfully satisfy a 
need, they are more likely to repeat the response when 
a similar problem is presented. She needed better study 
skills. When they were acquired, she used them to 
learn subsequent lists.) 

In Animal, the child is told to think of an animal. 
Then a question appears. "Is it a mammal?" If the child 
doesn't know what a mammal is, a parent can encour- 
age use of a dictionary. The questioning continues 
using such words as feline, aquatic, and nocturnal; the 
child should look up each unfamiliar word. 

If the computer can't "guess" the animal, the child 
must think of a characteristic that makes it different 
from the one the computer screened last. The computer 
progressively "learns" new animals. As it becomes 
harder to stump, the kids search the dictionary for the 
odd and unusual. This game has "hooked" my children 
on words. 

Kid.Math has counting and number recognition 
games that delight my two-year-old. He can enter a 
number and have the computer "beep" it out while he 
counts along. In his favorite game, five numbers are 
printed in large-size graphics. Four numbers are the 
same; one is different. He identifies the different one. If 
he does not guess the number after three tries, the 
correct answer is given and the same five numbers are 

screened again. The game won't progress until the 
child enters the correct response. The score flashes 
after each correct answer and displays a big "YOU 
WIN" at the end of the game. 

While drill software is useful to an extent, once a 
child learns a skill, practice is often avoided. The true 
educational strength of the Kaypro, I believe, lies in the 
games written for it. Most include lengthy directions 
the child must comprehend in order to play. This 
establishes a personal need to gather information for 
later use. 

There are several types of games I feel are good 
learning tools. Games like Adventure top the list. The 
child is presented with a goal such as finding a trea- 
sure. He directs the computer using one- or two-word 
commands to navigate the course, deal with unex- 
pected situations, and retrieve the booty. Logic, mem- 
ory, and mapping skills are important in these games. 
The child must make inferences and draw conclusions, 
and these games also help children visualize cause- 
and-effect relationships. 

Several board games are included in Kaypro's soft- 
ware bundle, such as chess, checkers, and Go-Bang, in 
which the player matches his strategy skills against 
the computer's. Player moves are made by entering 
coordinates on a grid. Coordinate plotting is frequently 
a part of the child's math training. 

Older kids like the space games {StarTrek, Trade, 
and Rocket) that involve coordinate plotting, using 
percentages, and calculating acceleration and fuel con- 
sumption rates and management games, such as Civil 
War and Kingdom, that require players to efficiently 
manage resources, land, people, and money. I feel game 
playing is necessary to maintain interest in comput- 
ing, but of course there are other ways to use computers 
to teach skills. 

Most language skills, for example, are best taught 
through composition, but many students hate to write 
because good writing requires editing, and editing 
requires recopying. This loop is viewed as punishment, 
since the more one writes the more one recopies. Word 
processing is easier, and as a result, kids tend to revise 
more and produce longer, more detailed compositions. 

No matter how computers are brought into the 
learning process, children learn more when parents are 
interested in and encourage their endeavors. Learning 
to operate a computer is no different. 

Teach your children equipment use and care. When 
they use drill software, encourage them and praise 
their progress. Help them understand game directions 
and vocabulary, and offer advice and strategies. 

In the final analysis, even if your machine does 
nothing more than give you and your children quality 
time together, it's worth every dollar you paid for it. D 

Linda McPherson is a mother, teacher, and writer. 

Copyright © 1985 Linda McPherson. Aii rights reserved. 

September 33 

34 Profiles 


Acing the SAT 

Getting the competitive edge with practice 

by Benson Wong, with Mary DeDanan 

The worst thing that can happen to you when you 
take your SAT test is that your hands will be so 
sweaty that your pencil will fly out of your grip 
and land four feet away. When you go to retrieve it, the 
proctor will accuse you of looking at the crib notes on 
some guy's ankle. 

I take it back. The worst thing that can happen is 
that your mind will become softer than white bread, 
and just as empty. You will look at the following ques- 
tion, "If bee is to butterfly as chair is to floor, then is 5 
bigger than Q?" and the only thing you will be able to 
recall is last year's baseball stats. 

Wait, wait, here it is. The worst thing that can 
happen during your SAT: you will look at the quan- 
titative comparison section of the math test and feel 
sick. Really sick. Really, honestly, truly sick. The proc- 
tor will not believe you. He will accuse you of wanting to 
check the crib notes on your own ankle. If he doesn't let 
you go to the bathroom, you may die from a lethal dose 
of embarrassment. 

Of course, there is another scenario. Picture this: you 
saunter into the testing room. You listen to the proctor's 
instructions politely, but calmly. You know the rules. 
The proctor brandishes his stop watch and shouts 
"Begin!" With a wink to that attractive person in green 
sitting next to you, you open the booklet. 

"The word most nearly opposite in meaning to 
agreeable is a) plutonomy, b) albatross, c) premolar, or 
d) autochthon." 

You, of course, will know immediately that the cor- 
rect answer is b) albatross. That's because you prac- 
ticed taking the SAT long before the test date. And 
practice, as we all know, makes the difference between 
perfect and panic city. 

Practice is just what you get with a couple of Kaypro- 
compatible SAT preparation programs, one made by 
Krell Software Corporation in Stony Brook, New York, 
and another made by Resource Software International 
Incorporated (RSI) in Fords, New Jersey. 

The Krell package costs considerably more than 
RSI's program, and the manufacturer acknowledges 
that it's the most expensive on the market. There are a 

couple of good reasons for this, Krell maintains: one is 
the warranty and bonus for improved scores; the other 
is Krell's "randomization feature." The RSI program 
offers just 18 questions per section. On the other hand, 
it has certain features the Krell package lacks. 

But before I talk about the advantages and draw- 
backs of these two packages allow me to digress just a 
little and speak about the SAT itself. 

SAT spells terror 

Is there a single college-bound kid in the country who 
does not live in terror of the Scholastic Aptitude Test? I 
was recently a high school student myself, and 
although I took the test two years ago, I clearly 
remember the anxiety. Why? Because SATs are used in 
the admissions process for universities across the 
nation. Your score may well determine whether you get 
into Harvard ... or are condemned to Podunk Junc- 
tion Dairyman's School. For those innocents who are 
not yet aware of what they're in for, here's the scoop: 

The SAT tests a student's math and language skills. 
There are four verbal sections, two math sections, and 
a written English section. 

The verbal part of the SAT focuses on vocabulary 
arid comprehension. It can be devious. For instance, in 
the first vocabulary segment, each question asks for 
the word that is most nearly opposite in meaning to the 
word given. In the analogies section, you are required 
to find a relationship between two words, then find a 
similar relationship in the answer choices. (I consider it 
the hardest part of the whole test.) 

Comprehension is up next. First you must complete 
sentences from which one or two words are missing. A 
large vocabulary will also come in handy here, since 
the choices of missing words are tricky. Last is reading 
comprehension, where you read a passage of text and 
then answer slippery questions about it. 

The math section is a double header: standard multi- 
ple-choice questions and quantitative comparison 
questions. On multiple-choice, you must figure out the 
problem, then hope that your answer matches one of 
the choices below it. 

Copyright © 1985 Benson Wong and Mary DeDanan. All rights reserved. 

September 35 

The quantitative comparison questions show two 
values, 'A" and "B." You must find which value is larger, 
or whether they are equal, or whether the answer can be 
determined at all. This part of the math test is a 
considered a little harder. 

The Test of Standard Written English (TSWE) exam- 
ines your grammar skills. The challenge here is deter- 
mining which phrase is correct or incorrect. It should 
be noted that this test is graded separately from the 
verbal and math sections, and serves mainly as a 
placement device for the college. 

A perfect score on the entire SAT is 1600. One right 
answer gives you one point. A question left blank gives 
no points. An incorrect answer subtracts a quarter of a 
point (or one-third of a point for some math questions). 
This method of docking is to discourage you from 
playing eeeny-meeny-miney-moe with your answers. 

If I know you, you'll want to come as close to the 
magic 1600 as you can. So bring in your Kaypro and 
let's talk SAT preparation software. Both the Krell and 
RSI packages are excellent in content and cover the 
subject matter very thoroughly. Both work by drilling 
you in the exact types of questions that you will be 
facing on the real test. Both have a few minor problems, 
but overall, the pluses outweigh the minuses. 

Krell's College Board SAT Preparation Series 

Getting the Krell software to run first requires that you 
put BASIC on each of the four diskettes. The program 
comes with a detailed instruction sheet, so even some- 
one who has never before used a computer can do it. 
Once BASIC is on, you complete loading by pressing the 
reset button. All this makes it extremely easy to get 
going with Krell. In fact, my friends (who co-tested 
with me) found this program easier to load than the RSI 

Is there a single 

college-bound kid 

who doesn't live in 

terror of the SAT? 

One stand-out feature of the Krell's package is that 
you can choose the number of questions you wish to 
answer. This makes it very flexible because, unlike the 
RSI program, it allows up to 1,000 questions. You can 
also ask for questions based on your previous "learning 
coefficient." In other words, Krell will check the lessons 
you have done and determine the problems you need to 
work on. Krell refers to this as the Automatic Learning 

Another advantage of this package is that the scor- 
ing is very similar to the actual SAT. It also shows your 
score after each question, so that you can see how you 
are doing. The questions in this package are hard, but 

so is the SAT. It's definitely better to get used to it now. 

Now here's a nice feature : Krell offers a bonus of $1 5 if 
your SAT score is increased by 75 points, or if you score 
over 1350. There is also a limited warranty that this 
program will increase your score by 50 points or you 
get your money back. 

There are a few flaws in this program that you might 
want to know before you shell out everything you saved 
from your summer job at McDonald's. For instance, the 
Krell program does not show you the question at the 
same time that it reveals the answer. It's possible to 
forget what the question was! 

Same thing on the vocabulary part — Krell offers no 
definition of the word. After the word is gone, you still 
may have no idea of its meaning. However, on the math 
section, Krell will show you the solution, then ask if you 
want another problem of this type. This is an advantage 
because you can keep working on the tough ones until 
you get them right. 

There is a slight logistics problem with Krell's read- 
ing comprehension section and some of the math ques- 
tions. You must look back into the instruction manual 
where the text passages and mathematical diagrams 
are located. This may be a hassle, since it requires that 
you keep the manual next to you. But at least this 
eliminates the headache of not having the questions 
with the answers. 

But don't let these few bugs discourage you. Overall, 
Krell has a terrific study program. 

Resource Software International: The Coach 

Another SAT program is "The Coach," sold by Resource 
Software International. Unfortunately, loading it could 
be challenging for some. First you must place a diskette 
with BASIC in drive A and the RSI diskette in B. If you 
try to reverse the process, the drive will just spin freely 
as if nothing is in there. After logging onto drive B, you 
must then type "A:MBASIC CAI96" (since the program 
is in BASIC and the menu program is CAI96). However, 
once it gets started, RSI is very easy to use. 

RSI starts with the math section. There is a chance 
for you to review information about triangles, circles, 
and squares. At any time during the sample test the 
equations needed for area, perimeter, and angles can 
be shown and readily used. Solutions are flashed 
alongside the questions, so that you can see what is 
going on. The program also displays some diagrams, to 
let you visualize the questions as well as read them. The 
diagrams are not high-resolution, but they do get to 
the point. (The Krell program contained no diagrams.) 

In the math section, you can ask for help on any 
sticky problems. Even if you get it wrong, RSI will give 
you good hints. And if you choose a wrong answer, you 
get to try again. In fact, you can keep trying until there 
is only one choice left. At that time RSI will sigh a little 
computer sigh and just give you the answer, since it's 
pretty obvious what it is anyway. 

The verbal part of the test is just as good. I especially 

36 Profiles 

liked the reading comprehension section. The passage 
you must analyze is on the screen rather than in a 
separate booklet. And while answering the questions, 
it is possible to look back at the text— a real advantage. 
I also preferred this program's explanations of 
antonyms. RSI shows the definition of the word in 
question, as well as the definitions of all the other 
words. The analogies explanations are equally good. 
RSI interprets the relationship between the two words, 

A t the end of the 

practice tests, RSI 

gives the percentage 

and number correct. 

then reveals similar relationships among other word 

At the end of the RSI practice tests (both verbal and 
mathematical), the program gives you your score by 
the percentage and number correct on the first try, 
percentage and number correct on the second try, on 
the third try, and so on. Also, at the end, it is possible to 
retake the questions you got wrong. Of course, the 
disadvantage here is that you already know the 

Regrettably there are other disadvantages in this 
program as well. Some of the questions in the grammar 
part (for the TSWE) are not very good and therefore 
hard to understand. Also, the analogy section is a little 
too easy compared to the actual SAT and may not be 
adequate preparation. 

Perhaps the biggest problem is that this program 
has a very limited number of problems to answer. Each 
quiz has only 18 questions. If you want more, you're out 
of luck because you are also out of questions. 

RSI does not offer any warranty or gift certificate for 
improved scores, but this should not be a reason to pass 
this program by. Your reduced test anxiety will be 
reward enough. 


Both programs are excellent for their respective prices 
since both can help the willing student prepare for the 
SAT and similar exams. The Krell package costs con- 
siderably more ($229.95 versus $34.95), but offers 
much more. Its randomization feature makes many 
more questions possible, and provides far more 
rigorous practice overall. Moreover, Krell offers a $15 
bonus if you do well on the real SAT, and your money 
back if you don't. 

For the budget-minded, the $34.95 price of RSI's 
program is certainly right. The program offers helpful 
onscreen diagrams, hints, and other help. And, overall, 
it offers good practice. But once you've covered the 18 to 

(continued on page 74) 

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September 37 



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A TON OF 111(0 


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©19B3 Rocky Mountain Software Systems. 

A Complete System! 

includes all four standard general accounting programs: 

GENERAL LEDGER is completely integrated to automatically post 
end-of-month transactions from A/Ft, A/P and Payroll. It prints 13 detailed 
reports for the entire company, and optional Income Statements for up 
to 99 departments. It produces up-to-the-minute comparative financial 
statements with current, year-to-date, budget, and last year (month and 
YTD ), showing both dollar amounts and percentages, and presents 
everything you, your bookkeeper, and your accountant need to know about 
the company • G/L automatically reconciles all accounts, and main- 
tains extensive, detailed audit trails showing the source of each G/L entry 
for quick, easy, tracing • Trial Balance includes all transactions • Flex- 
ible Chart of Accounts • True double-entry bookkeeping • Master File 
capacity: 400 Accounts • Monthly Transactions capacity: 1 ,000 with 200K 
diskette; 3,500 with 500K diskette; 7,000 per Megabyte with a Hard Disk. 
ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE provides instant, on-line customer 
account information (both current and aged), with complete, timely 
invoicing, including open-item (or balance forward) and statement 
capabilities. It makes the entire billing process fast, easy, and efficient. 
It quickly identifies your overdue accounts, helps speed collections, helps 
control your cash flow, and assists you in making better financial deci- 
sions. Both detailed and summary customer activity and aging reports 
are instantly available • Preprinted forms available for invoices and 
statements • Optional service type invoice • Automatic finance 
charge calculation • Detailed audit trail • Maintains comprehensive 
customer data files • Produces 8 reports and documents • Includes 
automatic periodic customer/client billing option which is ideal for service 
businesses • Itemized monthly statements • Master File capacity: 400 
Customers • Monthly Transactions capacity: 800 with 200K diskette; 
3,500 with 500K diskette; 7,000 per Megabyte with a Hard Disk. 
ACCOUNTS PAYABLE maintains complete vendor/voucher 
history and includes check-writing capabilities. Current and aged 
payable reports are available upon command. It prepares an extremely 
useful cash flow/cash requirements report that greatly improves 
management control of your most valuable resource — cash! It prints 
checks (on commercially available forms on which your company name, 
address and logo can be imprinted) with comprehensive check stubs 
that your vendors will appreciate • Produces 1 1 reports and documents 

• Automatic pay selection program allows payment by due date or by 
discount date • Manual and automatic checkwriting • Check register 

• Detailed audit trail • Itemized monthly transactions • Master File 
capacity: 400 Vendors • Monthly Transactions capacity: 800 with 200K 
diskette; 3,500 with 500K diskette; 7,000 per Megabyte with a Hard Disk. 
PAYROLL is a complete, easy-to-use professional-quality payroll 
system. Be the office hero each week when the checks come out on timel 
This program calculates payroll for every type of employee (hourly, 
salaried, and commissioned) and prints payroll checks (with popular, 
comprehensive check stubs) with an absolute minimum of input. Your 
company name and logo can appear on these, too. • Stores and reports 
comprehensive employee and payroll information. • Maintains monthly, 
quarterly, and yearly totals for reporting purposes in multiple states(!) 

• Offers user-maintainable Federal, State, and local tax tables(l). • 
W-2 printing • 941 Reporting • Produces 10 reports and documents 

Master File capacity: 400 employees. An outstanding Payroll package! 

Produces These Reports & Documents: 

General Ledger 1. Chart of Accounts 2. Chart of Accounts with summary dotlar 
amounts 3. Chart of Accounts with prior year comparisons 4. Daily Transactions Report 
5. Itemized Monthly Transactions 6. Balance Sheet 7. Balance Sheet with prior year 
comparison 8. Income Statement *9. Income Statement with prior year comparison 
10. Departmental Income Statement(s) 11. Departmental Income Statement(s) with prior 
year comparison 12. Detail report for individual accounts 13. Trial Balance Statement 
Accounts Receivable 1. Daily Transactions Report 2. Invoices (with or without 
preprinted forms) 3. Statements (with or without pre-printed forms) 4. Summary Aging 
Report 5. Detailed Aging Report 6. Itemized Monthly Transactions 7. Detailed Customer 
Activity Report 8. Summary Customer Account Report 9. Customer Mailing Labels 
ACCOLintS Payable 1. Daily Voucher Report 2. Daily Credit Report 3. Checks 
with Detailed stubs 4. Check Register 5. General Ledger Transfer Report 6. Cash 
Requirements Report 7. Transaction Register 8. Open Voucher Report 9. Aged Payables 
Report 10. Detailed Vendor Activity Report 11. Summary Vendor Account Report 
12. Vendor Mailing Labels 

Payroll 1. Federal Tax Tables 2. State Tax Tables 3. Payroll checks with stubs 
4. Payroll Check Register 5. Monthly Payroll Summary 6. Quarterly Payroll Summary 
7. General Ledger Transfer Report 8. Detailed Employee File Listing 9. Produces 941 
Worksheet 10. Prints annual W-2 Forms 11. Employee Mailing Labels 

System Requirements: CP/M® with 64K RAM or PC-DOS (MS-DOS) 
with 128K • Microsoft BASIC • Two disk drives or hard disk • 132 column 
wide carriage printer, or an 8Vz")C\ 1 " printer with compressed print mode 
(an Epson MX-80 or similar printer). 

I Rush me more information on Desktop!! 

I Name 

I Company I 

| Address 

| City 


I Computer System . 

. State . 



Specialists in Accounting Software 


1280-C Newell Avenue, Suite 1304, Walnut Creek, California 94596 



'■■■" :■%, V VA*- iW4-. ■*' T* 

vji nr 


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Especially for you 

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Business Card File 

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Fun Goods 



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Desk Clock/ 

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For Your Desk 


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Paper Clips 

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Available in bulk (3000 @ 
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The Kaypro Uniball Pen 

A real favorite with everyone 
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Kaypro Printer Ruler 

Calculate your printer spacing 
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. or for the boss. 


Custom Key Fobs 

Handsome die struck and color 
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Thin Calculator 

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The Kaypro Executive . . . 



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Executive Kaypro 


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...a step ahead. 


Our software saves you money before it's installed 

Computer Professionals, Inc. has been 'developing computer applications 
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There are no extra charges for shipping, COO, 
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Phone. (803) 268-3911 

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Comprehensive system with the most wanted features. Provides accurate 
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PROGRAM FUNCTIONS i Systems Initialization customizes programs for your 
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detail general ledgers; Full/Consolidated/Selective departmental (FCS) 
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CAPACITIES; CP/M - 600 Accounts; MS-DOS - 2000 Accounts - 3-5 Digits 

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8 records (i.e. 300+ accounts and 1200+ transactions on a 191K disk). 






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up statement option combines the virtues of ledger card history detail 
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paper for invoices and statements. CAPACITIES of 600 Customers (CP/M) 
2000 (MS-DOS) - no limit on transactions, multiple customer disks OK. 

$80.00 PAYROLL $100.00 


A complete payroll system supplied with current tax routines for every 
state. Functions include Employee File maintenance; Employee Lists in 
multiple levels of detail; Input Worksheets! Time Card Entry; Regular, 
Overtime, Other, Commissions, Tips, Misc. Pay, Exception Processing so 
you only enter variable data; weekly. Bi-weekly, Semi -Monthly , Monthly 
pay cycles (run individually/combined); Departmental Payrolls; Checks; 
Check Registers; Earnings Reports; 941 's; Ul-2's; Unemployment Reports; 
Multi-state; manual Checks; G/L Transactions. Federal, FICA, State and 
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deductions. CAPACITIES - 600/2000 emp. (CPM/MSDOS), 98 Tax File Reds. 


CP/M....I 64K (53K TPA) & CP/M 2.0 or higher. 

MS-DOS..; 128K (or more) & MS-OOS/PC-OOS 2.0 or higher - ANSI.SYS. 
Printer.; 132 columns (compressed pitch supported), continuous forms. 
Disk/s..! Dual Floppies/Hard Disk/Both - 191K recommended, less works. 
CRT 80/24 with Clear, Home, Clear to E0L, Up, Down, Left, Right. 



52 Profiles 


The Ultimate Computer 

Learn to touch type 

by Sarah Wernick 

Hunt-and-peck typing on a word processor 
makes about as much sense as driving down a 
super highway in a horse and buggy. If you 
never learned touch typing — or if you did, but want to 
polish your technique — let your Kaypro teach you with 
a typing instruction program. 

The good news about typing instruction software is 
that it's relatively inexpensive. Two of the best packages 
reviewed below cost just $30, and you can get so-so 
public domain programs that might suffice for your 
purposes virtually free. But the bad news is that none of 
the typing instruction software available for the Kaypro 
takes full advantage of the computer's potential. 


The secret of speedy, accurate typing is correct finger- 
ing — notwithstanding exceptions like my friend Roger, 
who fires off text at 70 words per minute using just his 
index fingers. It takes practice to master correct finger- 
ing. Lots of it. In mere minutes you can learn that your 
left pinky is responsible for the letters A, Q and Z. But 
only after hours of drill will your left pinky be able to 
type those letters automatically. Most of what you need 
from a typing teacher (human or electronic) isn't really 
instruction, it's well-planned practice. 

Efficiency expert Frank Gilbreth, father of the 
"Cheaper by the Dozen" brood, taught his children to 
touch type by rapping their heads with a pencil when 
they made a mistake. None of the programs reviewed 
had this particular output device, but I weighted feed- 
back mechanisms heavily in assessing the software. 

Most of the programs begin with preliminary 
instruction, then present exercises with one to four 
typewritten lines for you to reproduce. I was looking for 
the equivalent of the descending pencil — a fast, clear 
indication of errors. Also, I wanted to know at the end of 
an exercise how fast and how accurately I had typed. A 
nice additional feature was on-disk record keeping to 
monitor progress. One major disappointment was that 
none of the programs could analyze errors and pin- 
point keys or fingers that needed further practice. 

There's no place for random strings of letters in 

practice exercises. Beginning typists need letter 
groups carefully selected to reinforce proper fingering 
— for instance, juj juj to train the right index finger. 

Intermediate exercises should use words rather 
than meaningless groups of letters, since extra prac- 
tice is needed for the letter combinations typical of the 
English language. Advanced practice is best done on 
material that approximates what you will encounter in 
real-life typing. The more variety (in other words, the 
larger the base from which exercises are selected) the 
better. A few programs have simple provisions for 
inserting your own text, a big plus • 

None of the programs covers everything on the 
Kaypro keyboard; most leave you on your own for the 
escape, control, delete, tilde, tab, backspace, back- 
slash, bracket and cursor keys. Dvorak keyboard fans 
are totally neglected, though the programs could be 
adapted for this efficient system with effort. 

I found no program that met all my criteria. But 
three were significantly better than the rest. First, 
descriptions of two also-rans. 

EATYPE (Micro Cornucopia) 

I've looked at about half a dozen public domain typing 
instruction programs. Most provide decent instruction, 
but limited drill and feedback. EATYPE is the best of 
the lot — which isn't saying much. 

EATYPE is a version of TTYPE, a program that 
comes from Australia (where they spell what you're 
supposed to do "practise"). Micro Cornucopia gives the 
source for both versions, along with TTYPE's 19K 
documentation file. The packed disk also has TDRILL 
for rudimentary typing practice, plus two nifty but 
irrelevant programs: one lets you address an envelope 
without entering a word processor, and the other com- 
putes the "Fog Index"— a measure of the obscurity of 
your prose that's based on sentence and word length. 

The program covers only the letter keys and basic 
punctuation. The documentation explains how to 
revise practice exercises— which is what you'll have to 
do if you want to work on numbers and symbols. 

When you call up an exercise from the menu (with no 

Copyright © 1985 Sarah Wernick. All rights reserved. 

September 53 

hint of what it contains, by the way), the screen pro- 
vides instruction, a display of the keyboard and a one- 
line exercise to type. The tips are useful, but the 
keyboard display, which flashes distractingly, is not. 
The author (a self-admitted three-finger typist) wants 
you to turn off the echo that displays what you type, 
read your entry by following the flashing cursor— and 
at the same time do the exercise. No way. 

If you wish, the machine will announce errors with a 
beep and keep the cursor in place until you get it right— 
a fine feature for beginners, I think. If you're willing to 
go through menus and wait a bit, it will count your 
errors and tell you how many words you typed per 
error— an offbeat measure. The author has left to the 
next generous programmer the task of interfacing EA- 
TYPE with a real-time clock to measure typing speed. 

Touch 'n' Go promises 

you'll type 40 words 

a minute with 95 

percent accuracy. 

Given what's available for slightly more money, I 
don't think that this $12 disk is a good value for 
someone who wants superior typing instruction. But if 
you'd like to probe the inner workings of a typing tutor 
program, tinker and improve, that's another story. 

TYPE1 (Wildriver Software) 

Like some public domain typing instruction programs, 
TYPE1 is written in Microsoft BASIC and requires the 
MBASIC interpreter to execute. Perhaps I'm preju- 
diced, but that seems unprofessional in software you 
pay $25.50 for— like bringing your mother along on a 
job interview. 

Calling up TYPE 1 gets you a nine-item menu. The 
first order of business is to identify yourself, since the 
program wants to be on a first-name basis with you — 
annoyingly insists on it, in fact. 

Options include instruction, assorted practice 
games and timed exercises. Instruction deals with just 
one finger at a time. Only in the games do you use 
different fingers in sequence, and only in the timed 
drills do you type real words. 

Some of the games require that you search the 
screen for a flashing letter— a pointless task that could 
distract the beginner from using correct fingering. The 
timed tests present one line at a time; if you want to try 
again, you have to go through four menus. Another 
irritation: many of the 80 sentences used for the timed 
tests have to do with state capitals (cities, not build- 
ings), which the author misspells "capitol" through- 
out. You can correct TYPE 1 's mistakes (there are oth- 
ers), or insert your own exercises — one of the few 
strengths of this otherwise amateurish program. 

Touch 'n' Go (Caxton Software) 

Work your way through Touch 'n' Go's 61 brief lessons, 
promise the authors, and you'll be able to type 40 words 
per minute with 95 percent accuracy. This program is 
excellent for beginners, but offers little to the inter- 
mediate or advanced typist looking to build skills. 

Talk about minimal documentation: everything is 
on the disk jacket. A label would have sufficed. Type 
"C" to run the simple configuration program, then "T" 
to begin the lessons. After each session, press "R" to 
review your performance. Clear menus provide all the 
guidance you need — unless you have a question about 
how the program works, in which case you are out of 

More than any of the other programs, Touch 'n' Go 
acts as your teacher. There's a carefully planned 
sequence of exercises, and you advance only after 
meeting reasonable speed and accuracy criteria. The 
program moves along nicely if you follow the plan. 
Otherwise you rely on a slightly-clumsier-than-neces- 
sary series of questions and menus. 

Beginning exercises consist of a line of simple letter 
combinations that you must type at 30 words per 
minute with 100 percent accuracy (for instance, "eded 
ed," with "ed" repeated 17 times). You're allowed to 
correct mistakes, but repairs will cut down your speed. 

Feedback is very good. As soon as you finish an 
exercise, errors are indicated with up-arrows, and your 
speed and accuracy scores are displayed. Words-per- 
minute scores seemed inflated, possibly because of the 
way the program counts words. Touch 'n' Go keeps a 
record of your performance during each session— the 
only program reviewed that does so. The next time you 
log in, you'll be reminded where you left off. Only the 
previous and current sessions are kept on disk, but you 
can easily get a printout to preserve the information. 

As you know from school, the course with the terrific 
teacher may not have a great curriculum. So it is with 
Touch 'n' Go. Typing instruction normally places great 
emphasis on the "home" keys— A S D F J K L and ;. 
Touch 'n' Go not only omits the usual admonitions to 
keep your fingers on the home keys, it tacitly encour- 
ages wanton digital wandering. 

For instance, one exercise in Lesson 5 calls for 10 
repetitions of the word "tree," which lures the fingers 
up to the QWERTY line. But you'll never be able to type 
without looking at the keyboard unless you keep your 
fingers in the home position. Why do you suppose the 
"F" and "J" keys of your Kaypro are especially deep? 

Spreadsheet users will appreciate Touch 'n' Go's 13 
lessons on the numeric keypad. However, there is no 
instruction for the numbers and symbols atop the letter 
keyboard— a significant omission, since many Kaypro 
users convert the numeric keypad to function keys for 
word processing. 

When you're ready for longer sentences, Touch 'n' Go 
reaches new literary heights for typing instruction 
exercises by using famous quotations. An example: "In 

54 Profiles 

giving freedom to the slave, we assure freedom to the 
free; honourable alike in what we give and what we 
preserve." But there's no ready way to insert "Fourscore 
and seven years ago ..." if you want variety. 

Touchtyp (Micro-Art Programmers) 

Like Touch 'n' Go, Touchtyp is a self-contained typing 
course. This one has the excellent curriculum with the 
boring teacher. Still, it is worth considering for anyone 
high school age or older who wants more room for 
advancement than Touch 'n' Go provides. 

Touchtyp's main menu takes you through begin- 
ning, intermediate and advanced lessons, ending with 
timed drills to build your speed. 

The beginning lessons cover the alphabet and basic 
punctuation keys; intermediate lessons focus on the 
rest of the punctuation keys, plus numbers and sym- 
bols; the advanced section provides practice text that 
reviews everything. 

Lessons are grouped in sections, each with its own 
irritating sub-menu of lessons. You have to enter 1 to get 
Lesson A, 2 to get lesson B, and so on. What's in these 
lessons? Simple as it would have been to provide this 
useful information, the menus don't say. 

Touchtyp does a good job of integrating instruction 
and practice. Right after each brief lesson come rele- 
vant exercises — two to four lines for you to type. You'll 
find the familiar letter patterns in the exercises, but 
Touchtyp introduces real words and sentences very 
quickly. The drills, which focus on the most common 
English letter combinations, are excellent. 

The text you type from is placed well above the text 
you enter, which makes it hard to spot mistakes as you 
go along. At the end of each brief exercise, Touchtyp 
redisplays the text as you typed it, then presents the 
correct version, highlighting your errors with a back- 
slash in a way I found inconvenient to read. For 
instance, if you typed "Kayypro computre" the correc- 
tion would read "Kayp\ro compute \r\". 

The correction display includes an error count, plus 
congratulations for a perfect performance and two 
levels of admonitions for those whose accuracy is sub- 
standard. Touchtyp and Touch 'n' Go are the only 
programs that don't penalize you for the rest of the line 
if you add or drop a single character. (Warning: don't be 
off by more than one.) 

Touchtyp offers no easy way to repeat a lesson if you 
want more practice on a particular key — and you 
might, since the pace is quite rapid. Once you get into 
one of the five- to eight-lesson sections, you have to 
scroll through the entire set (or boot yourself back to 
the operating system) to return to a menu. After com- 
pleting a section, a crude score is obtained by dividing 
your errors by the number of characters typed. 

There's a simple installation procedure that sets up 
the timed tests based on your timing a ten-second 
interval. I got inflated speed scores, despite repeated 
installation attempts — a problem that stymied the 

friendly person who answered my call to Micro-Art 
Programmers. Incidentally, the Touchtyp manual pro- 
vides no instructions for redoing the installation, 
though a reasonably experienced user can figure it out. 
Timed tests use four lines of text, drawn from a 
generous 100-line base. Errors are counted but not 
identified, even at the end— a drawback that probably 
isn't serious at this stage of the learning process. 
Typing tests for would-be secretaries have tough error 
penalties, but Touchtyp deducts only one word per 
minute for each typo. 

Hypertyper (Summit Software Corporation) 

This program has a little bit of everything: it's particu- 
larly quick and easy to use; the exercises and feedback 
are very good. Think of Hypertyper as a tool rather than 
a teacher. There's no helpful curriculum to follow, but 
you can benefit from the program regardless of your 
current typing skill. 

For basic instruction, Hypertyper sends you to the 
manual, rather than the screen — a mistake, in my view. 
On the other hand, the drill is so well planned that your 
fingers effectively teach themselves. 

The main menu offers options for learning and 
practicing specific keys (including both the keyboard 
numbers and the numeric keypad), plus general prac- 
tice. You can also choose between using the space bar 
(word processor style) or the carriage return (type- 
writer style) to end one line and move to the next. The 
learning and practice submenus are excellent, since 
you can easily specify the keys you want to work on. 

"Learn New Keys" brings up two lines of juj-type 
drill; "Practice Paragraph" has four lines of words and 
sentences focused on the selected group of keys. "Gen- 
eral Practice" covers the entire keyboard, presenting 
four sentences per drill. The "Learn New Keys" drill 
never changes, but lines of words and sentences are 
chosen at random from a 40-line database. Though you 
may soon tire of the limited stock, no instructions are 
provided for inserting new text. 

Hypertyper offers the best onscreen feedback of any 
of the programs reviewed. Mistakes are indicated 
immediately by the appearance of an up-arrow under 
the offending letter. After each drill, you get an error 
count and a raw words-per-minute score that doesn't 
take mistakes into account. 

Hypertyper lets you zip around quickly and easily. 
After you complete an exercise, you can press Carriage 
Return to repeat it, or Escape to return to the menu. 
Unlike the other programs, Hypertyper never slows you 
down with superfluous questions and menus, or keeps 
you waiting while it loads up subroutines. 

The two installation procedures are reasonably sim- 
ple. You set the clock that calculates typing speed by 
timing a one-minute interval, which should be more 
accurate than the ten-second interval used by other 
programs. After the flattering scores I got from Touch- 
typ and Touch 'n' Go, Hypertyper's assessment 

September 55 

When you're 
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start. But lately, maybe you've started 
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Or slow information retrieval or calculation. 
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The answer isn't more floppies — you need 
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Contact us today for full details or the name 
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inquiries welcome.) 

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307 6th Street, Huntington Beach, Calif. 92648 
(714) 960-7498 

Solutions that work. For you. 


brought me back to reality. 

The bottom line 

No single typing instruction program is best for every- 
one. A Boston Kaypro Users' Group member told me 
that his teenaged daughter learned touch typing from 
a public domain program; I tried that program (which 
makes you wade through 25 lines of drill before offering 
any feedback) and found it unbearably tedious. 
Obviously, you've got nothing to lose by checking out 
the free typing instruction software that turns up at 
user meetings and on electronic bulletin boards. 

The proprietary programs reviewed here are not the 
only ones available for the Kaypro. I also looked at Type- 
Riter by Orange Microware, which is similar to the 
tedious public domain program mentioned above. On a 
more positive note, at least one new typing instruction 
program is in the works: as this issue of Profiles went to 
press, I heard about promising new software under 
development at Advent. 

If I had to select a program for a high school or adult 
education typing course, Touchtyp would be the most 
appropriate of those reviewed here. The instruction is 
good, the exercises are well conceived, and the feed- 
back should be sufficient for classroom use. Touch 'n' 
Go is a good choice for beginners of any age, provided 
their ambitions don't include auditioning for Kelly 
Girls. Hypertyper is what Id recommend to families 
who want an all-purpose program that's suitable for 
kids, but challenging enough for parents who want to 
build upon the typing basics they learned in junior 
high school. LJ 

Sarah Wernick is afreelance writer and editor, and a 
member of the Boston Kaypro Users' Group. 

Quick Reference Summary 



Micro Cornucopia 

PO Box 223 

Bend, OR 97709 


$25.50 ($8.50 for demo) 
Wildriver Software 
1111 Birch Dr. 
Hudson, WI 54016 



Micro-Art Programmers 

173 Birch Ave. 

Cayucos, CA 93430 



Summit Software 

c/o Digital Marketing 

2363 Circle Blvd., Suite 8 

Walnut Creek, CA 94595 

Touch 'n' Go 


Caxton Software 

c/o Software Research Technologies 

3757 Wilshire Blvd., Suite 211 

Los Angeles, CA 90010 


56 Profiles 



• Use your modem to make phone calls auto- 
matically without exiting the program you are 
already working on!!! 


• Write a note, paragraph, letter, a whole file; 

anytime, from within any other program! 
■ Edit another file without leaving your 

current file!!! 


• Punch up a four function calculator anytime, 
whenever your computer is on!!! Works in 
decimal, binary, hex!!! Works from within a 
spread sheet, or any other program!!! 


• Check your calendar, schedule appointments 

anytime your Kaypro is on!!! 
- Monthly calendars 1752-2099 AD!! 


■ Checkthe directory of any disk, any user number, 
from within any program!!! 

■ Display the contents of another file on your 
screen at any time!!! 


• Printthe screen. . .anyscreen(minusgraphics), 
at any time!!! 

• Dump to your printer, or to a disk file!!! 

"Disk Full" message? 
With HANDYMAN you can check the disk 
directory and erase superfluous files from 
within any program!!! 

Turn your Kaypro on!!! HANDYMAN is there!!! 

HANDYMAN is a plug-in board for your Kaypro!!! 
HANDYMAN Works with all Kaypro CP/M models!!! 
HANDYMAN Easy to install!!! 
HANDYMAN We'll talk you through it over the phone 

HANDYMAN Includes software in ROM and its own working RAM!!! 
HANDYMAN You never have to load it! 

HANDYMAN Single stroke commands!!! 
HANDYMAN is compatible with all CP/M application programs!!! 
handyman Uses no main memory!!! 

*W1I 1-V-/ vjl vJI UV/U, ll HXJ.MF' 

3010 FLOYD STREET BURBANK, CALIFORNIA 91504 (213) 849-7711 

YES! Send me 

HANDYMAN(s) at $124.95 each. 

(quantity) at $124.95 

California residents add 6.5% 
Shipping and handling 


Sales tax 

My KAYPRO is: 
HDD 2-84 


4-84 n n 10 

Robie □ □ 10-84 
4X □ □ 12X 

Charge my 

D Wordstar □ Perfect Writer NOTEPAD command set 


TOTAL $ _ 

C.O.D. and checks drawn on US banks also accepted. 

Trademarks Kaypro (Kaypro Corporation) Wordstar (MicroPro International Corporation) Perfect Writer (Perfect Software, Inc.) 

Demo Packet 

The crammed- full 
Demo Disk alone 
packs more punch 
than many programs 
costing well ever 
5100. You get: 

- Printouts of 5 
graphic samples (up 
to twice the size 
shown hero) , right 
on your printer! 

- A shodinq pro- 
gram that prints 
any of the thou- 
sands of FRANK-ART 
shades & tones, on 
your printer! 

- A fully inter- 
active tutorial 
program that shows 
how easy FRANK-ART 
is to use - you 
actually move and 
shade images in any 
of thousands of 
ways, on your 

Guide: details 
dozens of fun and 
money-making plans 
& businesses , such 
as personalized 
greetinqs & holiday 
cards, calendars, 
posters , advertis - 
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58 Profiles 

DU to the Rescue 

Parti: Into the jungle 

by Ted Silveira 

It was late. I had an article due the next day, but I 
wasn't worried. I just had to grab some information 
off one of my archive disks, merge it into the article, 
and presto — I was done. 

I found the right disk, stuck it in the B drive, and 
warm-booted. I called for a directory of the new disk 
and listened to the B drive whirr. For a long time. Too 

"Bdos Err On B: Bad Sector." 

It's called a crash. One minute you're working with a 
disk full of important files. The next minute CP/M won't 
read the files, or tells you they don't exist, or refuses to 
acknowledge that your disk is in the drive. If you have 
current copies of all your files tucked away on another 
disk, you're safe. But if you don't have another copy, or 
you've just entered a load of new information . . . 

There's still hope. With a disk editor, you can recover 
files, especially text files, from many kinds of crashes. 
Such a program lets you examine, change, and move 
information stored on any disk, byte by byte. With it, 
you can get to damaged files or disks that other pro- 
grams refuse to recognize, like an explorer uncovering 
a lost city in the jungle. 

Disk editors are powerful tools, and if you're careless, 
you can wipe out disks, even hard disks, in an instant. 
But don't think that disk editors are just for technical 
wizards. With patience and caution, you can pull off 
minor miracles even if you're a novice. Before you can, 
though, you need to know how disks and files are 
organized, how to use a disk editor, and what to look for 
when a disk or file crashes. This month, I'll introduce 
you to a disk editor and use it to start you on a guided 
tour of a disk. Next month, I'll finish the tour of both 
disk and disk editor and show you how to deal with 
some common crashes. 

Getting a disk editor 

All the disk editors I use come from the public 
domain— DU-V88, DU2, SUPERZAP, PATCH 18A, and 

others. In this article, I'm going to use DU-V88— it's not 
the slickest of the group, but it has the right features, 
and it's widely available. You can get DU-V88 from 
almost any CP/M bulletin board (if you have a modem) 
or CP/M users' group. If you can't find DU-V88 any- 
where, you can get DU-V77 by mail for $10 on KUG 
library disk 146 (P.O. Box 100, Malverne, NY 11565). 
DU-V77 is an earlier version, but it'll do the job. 

Before you start 

To work on your disks, you need to know how they're 
organized. If "tracks" and "sectors" are unfamiliar 
terms to you, read "How Disks Are Organized" on page 
82. You also need to know something about bytes, 
hexadecimal numbers, and ASCII characters. If any of 
these is new to you, read "The Hex/ ASCII Connection" 
on page 82 . 

Finally, you need to know whether you have single- 
sided or double-sided disk drives. If you have a Kaypro 
2X, 4, or 10, you have double-sided drives. Since all 
these machines use the same floppy disk format, I'll 
refer to them generically as "Kaypro 4." 

If you have a Kaypro II or 2, you have single-sided 
drives. I'll refer to both these machines as "Kaypro 2." 

Getting ready 

You need two blank, formatted disks with the CP/M 
system written on them. You can use old disks, but 
make sure you reformat them so they're wiped clean. 
The Utility Disk. Label the first disk "Utility Disk," 
and copy the following programs onto it: 

• DU-V88.COM, hereafter known as DU.COM or DU. 

• D.COM or STAT.COM to show you the size of a file 
and how much free space is on a disk. 

• PIP.COM, NSWRCOM, or some other program that 
will let you copy files one at a time (i.e., don't use 
COPY COM, which copies the whole disk at once, track 
for track, or you won't have a clean disk, which could 
cause trouble). 

Copyright © 1985 Ted Silveira. Ail rights reserved. 

September 59 



TRACK 1 , 












ANATOMY OF A KAYPRO DOUBLE-SIDED, DOUBLE DENSITY DISKETTE: As the righthand enlargement shows, the track count for the pictured 
double-sided diskette starts on the bottom with track 0, then alternates from top to bottom through to the innermost track, track 79 
(80 tracks total). However, on Kaypro s/ngr/e-sided diskettes, all tracks are on the bottom with track outtermost, and track 39, innermost. 
When seen through DU, logical sector counts for both types of diskettes start with sector 1 [not sector 0), and go clockwise to sector 40 
(see lefthand enlargement), 

• your usual word processor. 

Make sure you have backup copies of every program 
on the disk. However careful you are, you still may 
accidentally scramble part of this disk with the disk 

The Test Disk. Label the second disk "Test Disk." 
You need some files to practice on, so use PIP or NSWP 
(not COPY!) to move four or five text files and a couple of 
programs onto the Test Disk. For the text files, the 
content doesn't matter, as long as: 

• they're all compatible with your usual word 

• they're all different (so you can tell them apart). 

• they're all expendable. 

• one file is larger than 32K (if you use the Kaypro 4 
format), or larger than 16K (if you use the Kaypro 2 
format) so that you can see how CP/M handles very 
large files. 

For the programs, any will do. 

After you've done all your copying, erase one file (so 
you can see what happens to erased files later). 

You will without a doubt crash your Test Disk more 
than once, either on purpose or by accident, so never 
put any file on this disk that you can't afford to lose. On 
the label of my Test Disk, I've written in large red letters 
"WARNING— this disk may crash at any time." 

Note to Kaypro 10 owners: I'm writing as if all 

Kaypros had two floppy disk drives, but you, of course, 
have one floppy and one hard disk drive. Everything I 
say here applies to your floppy disk drive. Much of it also 
applies to your hard disk drive, but the details will be 
different— you'll have to translate and adapt. Above all, 
don't use DU to "experiment" on your hard disk; you 
risk destroying 10 megabytes of files. The Test Disk 
should be for your floppy disk drive only. Don't even 
think about poking around on the hard disk until you 
know DU inside and out. And before you do anything 
with DU, even on the floppy, make sure you have backup 
copies of everything on your hard disk stored safely. 

Starting up 

Put the Utility Disk in drive A and the Test Disk in drive 
B, and then enter A C to warm boot your Kaypro. At the 
A> prompt, enter DU and hit RETURN. DU will load 
itself and show you this message: 


Universal Version under CP/M 2.2 

Type ? for help 
Type X to exit 

DU immediately tells you the two things you most need 
to know— how to get help and how to get out. The 
mysterious colon (:) is DU's command prompt— it's 

60 Profiles 


waiting for you to tell it what to do. 

Getting Help. At the command prompt, enter I to 
see a list of commands. DU will show you the first of four 
help screens and print the prompt "[more] at the 
bottom of the screen. Hit any key (except AC) to move on 
to the next help screen, repeating this P™^unffl 
you've returned to DU's command prompt (:). These 
help screens are just for reference, so the command 
descriptions are very brief; don't worry if you cant 
decipher them right now. 

Aborting an Operation. You can enter AC to force an 
emergency halt of anything DU is doing. II you enter AC 
at the " [more]" prompt, DU will return to its command 
prompt without continuing through the rest of the help 

' Exiting DU. To exit DU, enter X at the DU command 
prompt; DU will return you to CP/M. Try it, and then 
start up DU again just as you did before 

Changing Drives. When you run DU from the A> 
prompt, it comes up ready to work on your current (or 
"logged in") drive, drive A. To change drives use the 
"L" command-enter L plus the letter of the drive you 
want to move to. To get to your Test Disk you must 
move to drive B, so at the command prompt, enter LB 
which tells DU that you want to Log in drive B You 11 
hear whirring from your disk drives and youU get a 
new command prompt (:). To move back to dnve A, 

'"other than the drive noise, DU gives no sign that it 
has moved to the new drive. 

Getting Information about the Current Drive. To 
confirm that DU has moved to the new drive, use the 
•'#• command. Enter * at the command prompt, and 
DU will print the screen you see in Listing la or ID. 
Don't worry if most of this information means nothing 
to you now; it will soon. For the moment, look only at the 
top line, which tells what your current drive is. If it 
doesn't say "Statistics for drive B;," use the L command 
to move to drive B. Then use the # command again to 
make sure you got there. 

The rest of the display gives information aoout now 
your Kaypro's disks are organized. The lefthand col- 
umn of numbers is in everyday decimal, the righthand 
column in hexadecimal. 

Moving around the disk 

Now that you're logged in to drive B, where the Test Disk 
is, you can use DU to move around the disk, to any track 
and sector you want. 

Moving by Track and Sector. To move to a particu- 
lar track use the "T" command, followed by the 
number of the track you want (track numbers are 
always given in decimal) . At the DU command prompt 
enter TO to move to track 0, Tl to move to track 1 , T39 
to move to track 39, and so on. 

Statistics for drive B 


Sys tracks: 



Dir groups: 


Dir entries 










LISTING 1a: Drive statistics for a Kaypro 4, double-sided drives, 
as shown by DU-V88. 

Statistics for drive B: 

Tracks: 40 

Sys tracks: 1 

Sec/track: 40 

Groups: 194 

Dir groups: 4 

Sec/group: 8 

Dir entries: 64 


LISTING 1b: Drive statistics for a Kaypro 2, single-sided drives, 
as shown by DU-V88, 

Don't even think about 

poking around on the 

hard disk until you 

know DU inside and out. 

Bv itself the T command doesn't cause the disk 
drive head (the part that "reads" the disk) to move to a 
new track; it just selects the track you want. The actual 
move takes place only after you also select a sector 

The "S" command, for moving to a particular sector 
on the current track, works like the T command-you 
enter S followed by the number of the sector you want 
(sector numbers are always in decimal, too). Enter bl 
to move to sector 1 of the current track, S2 to move to 

sector 2, and so on. 

If you've already selected a new track, you 11 probably 
hear some noise from the disk drive after you use the S 
command-thafs the disk drive head moving to a new 
spot. Move back and forth between track 0, sector 1, 
and track 39, sector 40, and listen. 

Knowing Where You Are. After each track or sector 
move, DU displays a line telling you where you are, like 

this: „ „ 


The first part of this status line (T=0) gives your current 
lack (track 0) and the second part (S=l) gives your 
current sector (sector 1). This sector, the one you 
address with the S command, is sometimes called a 
logical sector. The third part of DU's status hne (PS-0) 
gives your current physical sector. nhvsical 

To DU the difference between logical and physical 
sectors is their numbering: physical sectors ^num- 
bered in the order in which they're laid out on the track 
logical sectors are numbered in the order ir i which 
they're used by CP/M. In the Kaypro, DU considers 
ogical and physical sectors to be the same, except that 
Seal sectors are numbered starting with 1 and phys- 
ical sectors starting with 0. Fortunately, you can ignore 


September 61 

physical sectors for everything I'll cover in this article 
You 11 be working only with logical sectors, which I'll 
just call "sectors" from now on. 

Moving One Sector at a Time. To move just one 
sector forward or back from your present position, you 
can use the "+" and "-" commands. Enter + at the 
command prompt to move forward one sector (from 
sector 2 to 3, for example). Or enter - at the command 
prompt to move back one sector (from sector 2 to 1 for 

Move to sector 40 of your current track and enter +■ 
you 11 move to sector 1 of the next track. Move to sector 1 
of your current track, and enter -; you'll move to sector 
40 of the previous track. Move to track 0, sector 1 and 
enter -; you'll end up on track 79 (track 39 if you have a 
Kaypro2), sector 40. 

Play with the T, S, +, and - commands a bit, and then 
move to track 1 , sector 1 . Here you'll find the first of 16 
ogical sectors that make up the disk directory, which 
tells what files are on your disk and where they are. 

Viewing the disk directory 

To see what's in this sector of the directory, use the "D" 
(for Display) command. Enter D at the command 

Reading the DU Display. When you look at the first 
sector of the disk directory, you should see a display like 
that in Listing 2 (though the actual file names and 
other details will be different). 

On the right side of the display in Listing 2, you'll see 

a block of letters and periods, eight rows deep by 16 

columns wide, set off by a column of asterisks (*) on 

either side. This block gives the ASCII display of this 

sector-if a byte can be shown as a printable ASCII 

character it is; if not, it is shown as a period (.). Within 

this block, you can make out three file names- 


dS th H nU ? b£rS that make U P the ^xadecimal 
display. This display shows every byte in this sector as a 

uo-digit hexadecimal number-if you read the top 
hne of the display, the first byte is OOh, the next is 46h 
the next 4Ch, and so on. 

In Listing 3, I've tried to create a clearer picture of 
the hexadecimal display from Listing 2 by adding 
spaces to separate the bytes and column numbers (00 
OF along the top to help identify the location of each 
byte If you start in the upper lefthand corner of the 
display (row 00, column 00), the first byte (OOh) is at 
locataon 00. Moving to the right, the next byte (46h) is 
at location 01 (row 00, column 01), the next (4Ch) at 
location 02, and so on to the last byte (5Bh) in this row 
^ °f, 0E In the next row down, the leftmost byte 
02h) is at location 10 (row 10, column 00), the bvte to 
its right (03h) is at 11 (row 10, column 01), the next 
byte (04h) is at 12, and so on. This numbering con- 
tinues through the bottom row, locations 70 through 
7r. ° 





00 46 4C 4D 

02 03 04 05 

E5 42 49 4F 

08 00 00 80 
00 4D 4F 4E 

09 0A 0B 0C 
00 4D 4F 4E 
1F 28 29 2A 

4B 54 30 30 
06 07 00 00 
20 20 20 20 

31 54 5 
00 00 
20 54 5 

8 54 
8 54 

53 54 45 52 20 

0D 0E 0F 10 11 

53 54 45 52 20 

2B 2C 2D 2E 2F 


0C 0D 0E 0F 

00 00 00 5B 

00 00 00 00 

00 00 00 03 

00 00 00 00 

01 00 00 80 
11 1C ID IE 

Kr o in ^ r ®P/ oduces the hexadecimal display from 

LISTING 2 in a modified form. I have added spaces and column 
numbers to show the location of each byte more clearly 

G = 00:00, T = 1, S= t PS = 

!! S!iff?f! 4B543030 31545854 0000005B 

o! 1111^3 06370000 00000000 munnn 

llllllll 2^45854 00000003 

i^ilii "544552 20202020 H(„. , 

0A0B0C 0D0E0F10 1112191A 1B1C1D1E 

"4D4F4E 53544552 20202020 03000003 

1F28292A 2B2C2D2E 2F{"" 

3 B I TXT.' 

monster' ' ' ' ' 

*+, -. / 

LISTING 2: This shows the display given in response to DU-V88's 
HZ Z d my tS 8 firSt S9Ct0r ° f ^ A ^ Si 1, 

The rest of what you see in Listing 2 is the hex- 
adecimal display of this sector-it's not easy to read at 
first. The leftmost column contains two-digit row num- 
bers that you'll use for reference later. In between this 
column and the ASCII display, you'll see four blocks of 

62 Profiles 

In other words, a byte's location is the combination of 
its row number and column number-to find location 
ob, you look in row 50, column OE 

Using this system, you can refer unambiguously to 
any byte in the sector by its location. At location 43 
row 40, column 03), you'll find the byte 4Eh- at 
location 5C, the byte lBh; at location 76, the byte 2Dh 
You 11 also use this same system of referring to bvte 
locations later, when you change the bytes in a sector 
Now look back at Listing 2, where you can see the 
two displays, hexadecimal and ASCII, side by side 
These two displays show exactly the same informa- 
tion-only the form is different. In the hexadecimal 
display, for example, the byte in location 01 is 46h- in 

AQr^ff ! i diSpIay ' thC Same byte is E If You look at the 
ASCII table in your Kaypro User's Guide, you'll see 
that the code for uppercase F is, in fact, 46h. 

Understanding the disk directory 

Once you can read DU's display, it's fairly easy to 
understand the disk directory itself. Every file on a disk 
has at least one entry in the directory. In Listing 2 

which shows the first sector of the directory on my Test 
Disk, there are four entries, each taking two lines (32 
bytes). The first entry (locations 00- IF) is for a file 
called FLMKT001.TXT. The second entry (locations 
20-3F) is for the file BIO. TXT, while the third and fourth 
entries (locations 40-5F and 60-7F) are taken by one 
large file, MONSTER. Now look at the directory of your 
own Test Disk; you should see some of the files you put 
on it, laid out in a similar way. 

The User Code. The first byte in every directory 
entry is the user code, which tells whether a file is 
active or not. If the file is active, the user code is usually 
OOh (I'll cover other possibilities next month.) If the file 
has been erased, the user code is E5h. For the first entry 
in Listing 2, FLMKT001.TXT, the user code (location 
00) is OOh, so the file is active. For the next entry, 
BIO. TXT, the user code (location 20) is E5h, so the file 
has been erased. 

The Filename and File type. After the user code, the 
next eight bytes in a directory entry (locations 01-08) 
contain the filename, and the following three bytes 
(locations 09-0B) contain the filetype. For the first entry 
seen in Listing 2, FLMKT001.TXT, the filename is 
FLMKT001 and the filetype is TXT. For the second 
entry, BIO.TXT, the filename is BIO and the filetype 
TXT. For the third and fourth, the filename is MON- 
STER, and there is no filetype. As you can see from the 
second, third, and fourth entries, any unused locations 
in the filename and filetype are filled with 20h, the 
ASCII code for a space. 

The Storage Map (Group Numbers). The second 
line of any directory entry is a map that shows where a 
file is stored on the disk by listing its "allocation 
groups" (sometimes called "allocation blocks" but 
usually just called "groups"). 

What's an allocation group? When CP/M allocates 
disk space for a file, it doesn't do so one sector at a 
time — that would require too much record keeping. 
Instead, CP/M treats a number of sectors as a group 
and allocates space one group at a time. 

Different computers may use different group sizes. 
The Kaypro 2 uses eight sectors per group (8 sectors/ 
group X 128 bytes/sector = 1024 bytes/group, which 
computer people call IK bytes). The Kaypro 4 uses 16 
sectors per group (2K bytes/group). If you use DU's 
command again to get your drive statistics, the sixth 
entry (Sec/group) will tell you how many sectors per 
group your computer uses. 

Because a group is the smallest space CP/M can 
allocate to a file, it determines the minimum file size. If 
you have a Kaypro 2 and create a WordStar file with 
only one character in it, STAT.COM (or D.COM) will say 
the file's size is IK. If you create the same file on a 
Kaypro 4, STAT.COM will say the file's size is 2K. 

Now look at Listing 2 again. In the first directory 
entry, the second line (locations 10-1F) shows the group 
numbers allocated to FLMKT001.TXT This file takes 
up six groups, numbers 02h through 07h (group num- 

bers are always hexadecimal). The unused locations in 
the storage map are filled with zeros. 

If a file takes up more groups than can be listed in a 
single directory entry, CP/M opens a second entry for it 
(and a third, fourth, etc., if needed). In Listing 2, 
MONSTER takes up 25 groups, so it has two directory 

Once you can read DU's 

display, it'sfairly 

easy to understand 

the disk directory. 

entries. Sixteen groups (09h-12h and 19h-lEh) are 
listed in the first entry, the remainder (lFh and 
28h-2Fh) in the second. 

When CP/M allocates space for a file, it doesn't try to 
keep all the pieces of the file in the same place; it jumps 
all over the disk, sticking the pieces in wherever it can 
find room. For example, MONSTER'S first directory 
entry jumps from group 19h to group lEh, and its 
second entry jumps from group lFh to group 28h; the 
missing groups (lAh-IDh and 20h-27h) have been 
allocated to other files somewhere else in the directory. 

The Logical Extent Count. The 13th byte in a direc- 
tory entry shows the logical extent count. Unfortu- 
nately, there's practically nothing logical about this 
one— if tracks, sectors, and groups haven't boggled 
your mind already, logical extents surely will. 

Some history may help. In early versions of CP/M, all 
computers had to use a group size of IK (as the Kaypro 2 
does now). Using these IK groups, a single directory 
entry could only cover 16K bytes of a file (because there 
are only 16 slots to list the group numbers in); any file 
over 16K required more than one directory entry. The 
maximum amount of space that could be covered in 
one directory entry (16K) became known as an "extent," 
and within a single file, each extent was numbered (00, 
01, 02, etc.) so that CP/M knew which contained the 
first part of the file, which the second, and so on. 

The current version of CP/M still uses the 16K extent 
(now called a "logical extent") to keep track of files, but 
it allows computers to use group sizes larger than IK, so 
they can cover more than 16K in one directory entry. As 
a result, a single directory entry can cover more than 
one logical extent. The Kaypro 4, with its 2K groups, 
can cover 32K (two logical extents) in one entry. 

Each time a logical extent is filled (i.e., 16K worth of 
groups is added to the directory entry), a new logical 
extent is opened, even if it only contains one sector of 
one group. The 13th byte in a file's directory entry 
(location OC for FLMKT001.TXT inListing 2) shows the 
current logical extent being used by this directory 

In Listing 2 , which shows part of the directory from a 
Kaypro 4, the logical extent counts for FLMKT001.TXT 

September 63 

(location OC) and BIO. TXT (location 2C) are both set to 
OOh. Neither of these files is larger than 16K, so neither 
has filled up the first logical extent (extent 00). The two 
directory entries for MONSTER, however, tell a different 
story. The first directory entry for MONSTER is full 
(32K worth), and the logical extent count is set to Olh 
(location 4C), meaning that the first two logical extents 
(00 and 01) are being used. In the second directory 
entry for MONSTER, the logical extent count is set to 
03h because the next two logical extents (02 and 03) 
are being used, even though the last one (03) is not full. 

I apologize for this long excursion into the meaning 
of logical extents, especially since you'll rarely need to 
do anything with them. You will need to understand 
them, however, if you should ever have to build a new 
directory entry in the course of rescuing a file. 

The Record Count. The 16th byte in a directory 
entry (location OFh for FLMKT001.TXT) shows a count 
of the number of sectors (called "records" in this case) 
used in the highest numbered logical extent of this 
entry. In Listing 2, the record count for MONSTER'S 
second directory entry (location 6F) is 03h, so only 
three sectors of the current logical extent (03 — see 
location 6C) have been used. 

The remaining two bytes in a directory entry are the 
14th and 15th (locations OD and OE for FLMKT- 
001. TXT); these are used for housekeeping by CP/M 
and should be OOh. 

Moving around the disk by group numbers 

When you first moved to the disk directory (using Tl 
and then SI), DU added something to the line display- 
ing your current track and sector. Along with the track, 
sector, and physical sector, DU told you that "G=00:00" 
(see Listing 2). This figure indicates what allocation 

When CP/M allocates 
disk space, it does 
so not a sector but 
a group at a time. 

your current group number, and the number to the 
right of the colon indicates your current sector within 
the group (both in hexadecimal). 

In Listing 2, the group is OOh because the disk 
directory, on track 1, is always the first group on the 
disk (the system track, track 0, isn't divided into 
groups). The sector is also OOh because Listing 2 shows 
the first sector of the directory. (The first sector in a 
group is 0, but the first sector on a track is 1 — I wish 
these people would make up their minds.) As you move 
around on the disk, you'll see the group and sector 
numbers change. 

Because files are usually dealt with by allocation 
groups, DU lets you move directly to any group with the 

"G" command. At the DU command prompt, enter G 
plus the number, in hexadecimal, of the group you 
want. G02 will take you to group 02h, G2F will take 
you to group 2Fh, and so on. To return to the disk 
directory, enter GOO. 

Do some experimenting on your own. Go to the 
directory on your Test Disk and display a sector. 
Choose one of the text files, identify its first group 
number, and use the G command to move to that 
group. Once you're there, display the first couple of 
sectors, looking at the ASCII display— it should show 
the beginning of the file you chose. Do the same thing 
with a few other files. 

You'll need to understand 
logical extents to build 
a new directory entry. 

A teaser 

This month, I've covered how disks are organized, how 
to move around a disk with DU, how to read DU's 
display, and how to read a disk directory. Next month, 
we get to the really interesting part — how to change or 
move bytes with DU and what to do with crashed disks 
and files. 

Just for fun, though, try this. Go to the beginning of 
the your Test Disk directory and display the sector. 
Now, at the command prompt, enter CH00,E5. This 
command tells DU to Change the Hexadecimal byte at 
location 00 to E5h. Display the sector again, and you'll 
see that the byte at location 00 has been changed to 
E5h — you've erased the file in the first directory entry. 

So far, the change is only temporary, so enter W at 
the command prompt to Write the changed sector onto 
the disk. Now exit DU and use STAT COM, DCOM, or 
DIR to list the files on your Test Disk— the file you erased 
will be missing. 

Now run DU again, log on to your Test Disk, go to the 
beginning of the directory, and display the sector. The 
directory entry for the erased file is still there; it just 
has its user code set to E5h. Now at the command 
prompt, enter CHOO.OO to Change the Hexadecimal 
byte at location 00 to OOh. Display the sector to make 
sure the change was made, and then enter W at the 
command prompt to write the change to the disk. Now 
exit DU and list the files on your Test Disk again — your 
file is back. You've erased and unerased a file. 

See you next month. □ 

Ted Silveira is a freelance writer and editor and has 
taught writing at San Francisco State University. He 
is also a consultant for novice CP/M users and soft- 
ware librarian of a CP/M users' group. 

(Please see related article onpage 82.) 

64 Profiles 


Complete Business Graphics Toolkit™ 

REMBRANDT gives you three easy-to-use tools that allow even 
the most inexperienced user to quickly master Kaypro graphics: 

•GRAPH enables quick and easy creation of business graphics including 
horizontal and vertical bar graphs, pie charts and xy plots (scatter graphs) - uses 
hand entered data or reads numerical data from just about any source including 
dBase II, spreadsheet, Mbasic and Wordstar files. 

•BOARD is the full-screen graphics editor for your computer. Create graphic 
screens, save and recall them to and from disk. Layout forms, design logos, 
draw pictures. It's easy and fun to use! 

•BRIEF produces electronic on-screen "slide shows" with absolutely no 
programming required! GRAPH and BOARD files are easily sequenced using 
nine or more "cinematic" special effects! 

REMBRANDT is complete with printer routines so graphics can be printed on 
virtually every dot-matrix or dasiy-wheel printer (Epsons, NEC, Okidata, Qume, 
Kaypro dasiy wheel printer and more. Call or write for complete list.) 

REMBRANDT the Complete Business Graphics Toolkit is $79.95 
Available for Kaypro 2-84, 2X, New 2, 4-84, 4E, 4X, 10 and Robie 

Make your KAYPRO 2 or II computer 
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READ, WRITE and FORMAT 25 different types 
of disks (including IBM PC-DOS/MS-DOS) with... 

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Now includes automatic line, 
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Type in "GIANT" characters 
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XY plots with three symbols 

New printer support (Apple Dot 
Matrix & Imagewriter, IDS 
Prism, Microprism and 480) 

Current REMBRANDT owners 

may return their original 

distribution diskettes for a $60 

credit toward Version 3.00 

NEW: IBM PC, Kaypro 16 & 
Zenith ZT00 versions now 
available: 75 formats $39.95 

2X, 4 & 10 versions !! 

MEDIA MASTER gives your Kaypro 2 or II instant access to program and data files in 25 disk formats including: 

Osborne SD & DD 
IBM PC-DOS 1.0 & up 
IBM PC-DOS 2.0 & up 
IBM CP/M-86 
Morrow MD2 


TRS-80 with Omikron CP/M 
TRS-80 III w/Memory Merchant 
TRS-80 IV with CP/M+ 
Heath Z100 

Systel II 

Heath w/Magnolia CP/M 

Cromemco w/lnf Term 

Cromemco CDOS SSDD 

Cromemco CDOS SSSD 

Tl Professional CP/M-86 


Lobo Max-80 

Xerox 820 I SD 
Xerox 820 II DD 
Zenith Z90 
DEC VT180 
NEC PC-8001A 
Kaypro II 

ORDERING INFORMATION: Include $3 per order for postage/handling. Overseas airmail add $10. USfundsonly. 

California residents add 6% (LA County, add 6.5%). 
To place COD or credit card orders: 

Call TOLL FREE 24 hours: 800-824-7888 (Operator 409) 

Alaska, Hawaii: 800-824-7919 (Operator 409) Technical questions: call 818-716-1655 
For more information, a free brochure (including sample printouts and reviews), or to order, contact: 


I N C. 

22458 Ventura Blvd., Suite E 
Woodland Hills, CA 91364 

Software also available for IBM, ZENITH, OSBORNE and DEC RAINBOW computers. Dealer inquiries invited. 



In support of this issue's editorial theme, Advent is offering the following 

Word Wiggle: Scrambled letter game for building vocabulary skills of young and old. 
Eleven skill levels containing 40,000 word dictionary. Fast paced, fun, and educational. 
Word Wiggle (CP/M & MS-DOS) Sg9£5" $24.95 

Reading Professor: Now you can use your computer to boost your reading speed while 
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Reading Professor (CP/M & MS-DOS) SSpjBg $49.95 

Additional Libraries Teach) .... $15.95 

SAT score builder. RSI Software - This program is designed to help students prepare for 

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College Board Score Builder $_3d«B5". . . $32.95 

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FREE Keyboard Template: Order any two items and receive our popular keyboard 
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File Transfer Service: Advent provides a service beyond the ability of any format conversion 
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Call for information and pricing 

We publish software If you have a program you'd like to have published, let us know. For 
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External Monitor Adaptor: The External Monitor Adaptor ( EMA) allows your Kaypro to 
drive an external video monitor. Original characters and video display remain unchanged. The 
Kaypro monitor remains operative. Simple plug- in installation. 

EMA Kaypro II or 4 $59.9S 

Taxan 115 Monitor (12" Green) $149.95 

Taxan 116 Monitor(12" Amber) $159.95 

EMA Kaypro2'84, 2X, 4'84, 10'84 $74.95 

EMA Kaypro 1083 $82.95 

12" Green Monitor* $159.95 

12" Amber Monitor* $169.95 

* Specially modified monitors must be used with all Kaypros except the original model II 
and 4. 

S MHz TurboBoard: Our tried and true 5 MHz speed enhancement for the earlier 

Kaypro models. 

SMHz TurboBoard for Kaypro II & 4 $74.95 

Clock/ Calendar: Real time clock/ calendar add- in for all Kaypro computers without built-in 
clocks. Works with Plu* Perfect DateStamper or your own application software. Source code 
drivers provided for use with MBASIC, SBASIC, dBASE II, Turbo Pascal C and assembly 
languages. The Clock/ Calendar also functions as a host adapter to our RAM disk and hard disk 
add-on products. Add these other products later and save money. 
Clock/ Calendar Interface $99.95 

TurboROM: A ROM enhancement for all 8-bit Kaypro computers. Faster disk read/ write, 
keyboard type-ahead, faster video display for newer Kaypros, and larger TPA (63K) for the 
Kaypro 1 0. The TurboROM supports up to four48TPl (392K) or quad density 96TP1 (790K) 
floppies all with 255 directory entries Additional drives require our Personality/ Decoder 
Module. Otherfeatures include a built-in driverfor our RAM disk and versions thatsupport up 
Jd 112Mb of hard disks 

KII/4 TurboROM for Kaypro II or4'83 $59.9S 

KII/4H TurboROM (hard disk version) $69.95 

K84 TurboROM for Kaypro 284, 484, 2X $59.95 

K84H TurboROM (hark disk version) $69.95 

K10 TurboROM for Kaypro 1083 $69.95 

Electronic RAM Disk; High speed internal RAM disk for all Kaypro models Expandable to 
1 Mb in 256K increments, then add the 1 Mb expansion board for a full 2MB RAM disk This 
RAM disk delivers more performance than the competition. Add hard disks or Real Time Clock 
later and save. 
Speed Comparison - At 4 MHz, times measured in seconds. 

Function Floppy SWP Micro C Advent 

Load Ladder 8.89 1.82 2.21 .80 

Save64Kfile 55.65 2.96 3.25 1.52 

2S6K RAM Disk $399.95 

512K RAM Disk $504.95 

768K RAM Disk $599.95 

1 Mb RAM Disk $689.95 

1 Mb Expansion Board (256K installed) $329.95 

256K Expansion Memory kit $115.00 

Hard Disk Add-in (Kaypro 10): Add an additional 10 or 20Mb drive inside your 
Kaypro, or install a single32 to 56Mb drive Package includes hard disk, all cablesand mount- 
ing hardware. TurboROM included. Add RAM disk or Real Time Clock later and save. 
10 to 56Mb Hard Disk Kit Prices start at $689.95 

Hard Disk Add-in: Add an internal 1 to 56Mb hard disk to any floppy disk based Kaypro 
computer. Includes hard disk, disk controller, all cables and mounting hardware 
TurboROM included. 

10Mb System $1075.95 

20Mb System $1506.95 

32Mb System $1639.95 

External Hard Disk Add-on: Add an external enclosure with 1 to 1 1 2Mb of hard disk and 
up to 2Mb of RAM disk to any 8-bit Kaypro. Mix and match to meet your needs 
External Hard Disk Add-on Prices start at $1523.95 

Printers Modem Cables: These high quality cables aredesigned to work between your par- 
ticular printer or modem and your Kaypro. Specify make and model of printer and Kaypro 
model when ordering. 

RS-232 Serial: 6ft- $17.95 12ft- $22.95 

Kaypro 16 RS-23Z Serial: 6ft- $19.95 12ft- $24.95 

Centronics Parallel: 6ft - $24.95 1 0ft - $28.95 

Kaypro 16 Parallel: 6ft - $27.95 10ft - $31 .95 

Modem Cable: 2ft- $19.95 4ft- $22.95 

12ft Keyboard Cable: Replace the original 4ft cable. Designed to meet the exacting 

requirements of your Kaypro. 

12ft Keyboard Cable $9.9S 

Anti-Glare Screen: Increases contrast and reduces glare. Attaches directly to the CRT and 

requires no disassembly. Please specify Smoke or Green when ordering. 

Anti-Glare Screen $19.95 

Kaypro Carrying Case: This fully padded case, made from Cordura, is completely enclosed 
and has a padded shoulder strap. Comes complete with pockets to carry your manuals and 
diskettes Please specify Blue or Black when ordering. 
Kaypro Carrying Case $69.95 

Finger Print'Letter Writer": Add near-letter-quality print IBM and Apple Graphics printer 
emulation, plus 1 6 other print functions to your Epson FX series printer! Replacement ROMs 
easy installation does not void printer warranty. 
Finger Print " LetterWriter" $79.95 


Autodiff: File difference detector. This program finds insertions, deletions, and changes bet- 
ween any two files Autodiff can mark the file, display, or print the differences and more! 
Autodiff (CP/M) $29.95 

CP/ M DateStamper: Automatically stampyour files with the date it is created, last read, or 
modified. Works without a Real Time Clock, with the clock in the newer Kaypros or with the 
Advent Clock/ Calendar. Utilities are included to allow copying, erasing, or renaming files 
based on time and date. A time logging utility is included to record computer usage for 
business/ tax purposes. 
DateStamper $49.95 

Format Conversion Software: Your Kaypro can read and write many popular disk formats 
including MS-DOS and PC- DOS. 

Media Master, up to 75 formats (all Kaypros) $39.95 

Uniform: up to 80 formats (all Kaypros) $69.95 

Sidekick: One of the most popular programs ever written. Use Sidekick as a calculator, 
notepad, appointment calendar, auto dialer, ASCII conversion table and much more. On-line 
help if you forget any of Sidekick's many functions. 
Sidekick (MS- DOS) , $S4.9S 

SmartKey: Saves you time. Makes every software program you use easier. Can reduce keys- 
trokes by more than 50% by redefining any key to be any combination of characters or com- 
mands that you desire. 
SmartKey $49.95 

SmartPrint: A powerful add-on to SmartKey, SmartPrint is a versatile writing tool designed 
to give you full access to your printer's features such as wide, bold, condensed, underlined, 
subscript superscript and more. Works great with programs like WordStar. 

XTREE: Directory maintenance program that graphically displays sub- directories and 
filename-paths. Complete control of your directory including delete, rename, view, list or 
show. A must for any IBM or clone. 
XTREE $49.95 

ZP/EM: Run almost any CP/M program on your IBM or clone. Use with Media Master or" 
Uniform to allow programs on CP/ M disk formats to run directly on your MS DOS computer. 
ZP/EM $59.95 


C/80 Ver3.1 : Full featured C compiler and runtime library. One of the fastest on the market 

Mathpak is included for true 32 bit floating point and signed integers 

C/80 Ver. 3.11 - QX10 $79.90 

Toolworks C: This compiler is a complete subset of C. The two-pass compiler produces 
relocatable object files(.obj) which are compatible with the MS- DOS LINK program. Mathpak is 
included for true 32 bit floating point and signed intergers 
Toolworks C: Compiler - QX16 $79.90 

C Mathpak(CP/M & MS-DOS) 7. $29.95 

Turbo Pascal Ver 3.0: (CP/M & MS-DOS) $69.95 

Turbo Toolbox; (CP/M & MS-DOS) $54.95 

Turbo Tutor: (CP/M & MS-DOS) $Z4.9S 

Turbo Graphics (MS-DOS) $54.95 


Infocom - Most popular computer games 

Cutthroats $39.95 Starcross . . . 

Deadline $49.95 Suspect 

Enchanter $39.95 Suspended . . 

Hitchhiker $39.9S Wishbringer 

Infidel $44.95 Witness .... 

Planetfall $39.95 Zork I 









$39.95 Zork II $44.9S 

$44.95 Zork 111 $44.95 

Eliza: The pioneering artificial intelligence program, Eliza is a psychiatrist that carries on a 
conversation in plain English about anything you wish. Great to play alone or in a group. 
Eliza (CP/M & MS-DOS) $24.95 

Adventure: Explore the dangerous Colossal Cave for treasures. Endure mystical spells and 

overcome adversaries. The only original uncut version. 

Adventure (CP/M & MS-DOS) $19.95 

Airport You are an air traffic controller and your radar screen is filled with aircraft under your 
guidance. See how long you can last without cracking. Tougher than the real thing! 
Airport (CP/M) $19.95 

MyChess: This award- winning world class chess program features nine skill levels with over 

850 opening moves Prints moves and saves-game in progress. 

MyChess (CP/M & MS-DOS) $34.95 


Nutrition Profile: Takeadvantage of this personalized diet analysis. Written by an M.D., this 
program instantlyanalyzes your total dietary habits and nutritional intake Keep track of your 
vitamins, minerals and cholesterol and more! Maximize your athletic performance. Maintain 
your optimum body weight A complete nutrition helper! 
Nutrition Profile (CP/M) $49.95 

MyDiet: Create your own personal nutritional profile that will help you derive the maximum 
benefit out of the foods you eat MyDiet is designed for the professional nutritionist but is 
easy to use. Compares to programs costing hundreds of dollars! 
MyDiet (MS-DOS) $49.95 

ComputerChef- #1 in the Series: The computerized cookbook for food lovers Contains a 
database of almost 100 recipes with space to add your own. Auto scale ingredient quantities, 
find recipes by key words or type of ingredients you want to use, then display or print 
your selection. 
Computer Chef (CP/M 81 MS-DOS) $29.95 

Kaypro - Kaypro Corp.. PX-8 / QX-10 / FX- Epson Corp. CP/M - DRt MS DOS- Microsoft, PC-DOS - IBM 
Corp.; dBASE II - Ashton Tata 

What's for Dinner - *Z in the Series: 200 main dish and dessert recipes. Requires Com- 
puter Chef program (not included). 
What's for Dinner(CP/M & MS-DOS) $19.95 

The Best of Wok Talk - *3 in the Series: Exotic Chinese cooking. Over 1 00 recipes from 

China. Includes Computer Chef program. 

The Best of WokTalk(CP/M & MS-DOS) $29.9S 


Checks & Balances version 3.4: A complete personal checking program or business regis- 
ter. 3.4 is a complete package that includes checkwriter and database. It is easy to learn and 
use with new features, including more types of reports. An excellent money managed 
Checks & Balances $74.95 

Rembrandt Ver. 3.0: The most popular graphics program for the Kaypro computer. Sup- 
ports most dot matrix printers. 
Rembrandt (CP/M) $79.95 


Feature Format A Scriptwriter's key redefinition program for WordStar, Feature Format 
outperforms other competitive programs in speed and function. Assign up to 4 keys to a 
definition. FF saves key definition to disk for later use, and much more. 
Feature Format (CP/M) $79.95 

Punctuation & Style: Improves your writing by catching unbalanced quotes, parentheses 
and brackets, improper abbreviations, capitalization, sentence structure, much more. It's like 
having your own copy editor! 
Punctuation & Style (CP/M & MS-DOS) $125.00 

Thesaurus: This powerful 90.000 word Thesaurus allows you to select the best word for the 
application. Works inside WordStar for greater ease of use. Instantly searches its dictionary, 
then displays synonyms, and automatically deletes the"wrong" word and replaces it with the 
"right" word. Requires 380K disk storage. 
Word Finder (CP/M & MS-DOS) -. $79.95 

Wordpatch: Printfiles with tiny, compressed, wide, orwidecompressed type faces, 5 sizes of 
italic, real superscripts and controls to learn. Supports most popular dot matrix printers. A 
must for WordStar users! 
Wordpatch (CP/M & MS-DOS) $49.95 

The Word Plus: The ultimate spelling checker. Not only finds misspelled words but shows 
you correct spelling options, shows the word in contextand much more This program is bun- 
dled with all 8- bit Kaypro computers A must for Kaypro 1 6 users! 
The Word Plus (MS-DOS) $150.00 


Typing Tutor: Comprehensive program for use in teaching beginning skills or improving 
speed and accuracy. Not a simple minded drill this program takes you proper finger place- 
ment basic thru advanced drills using "real world" text examplesfor both the main keyboard 
and the numeric keypad. 
Keyboard - The computer Typing Tutorial (CP/M) $34.95 

Call for information on RSI educational software. 


Diskettes, Double Density: 

Maxell package of 10 with storage box. 

Single Sided '. .... $19.95 

Double Sided $23.95 

3M box of 10 

Single Sided $22.95 

Double Sided $26.95 

Economy Diskettes: package of 25 including tyvek sleeves. 

Single Sided $29.50 

Double Sided $31 .25 

Call or write for our FREE catalog. 

All items are warranteed for90 days. 30 day money back guarantee if not completely satis- 
fied. Money back guarantee for software applies only if diskette seal is intact VISA and Mas 
terCard are welcome. Please add $2.00 freight pertotai order( additional freight on monitors 
and carrying cases) and $2.00 for COD orders California residents please add 6% sales tax. 
Prices, availability and specifications subject to change without notice. 


National (800) 821-8778 

California (800) 52 1 -7 1 82 

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r m 1 produces inc (71 4) 630 0446 

Disk Drive Diagnostics 

Anticipating diskaster 

by Pieter Burggraaf 

I learned the hard way, but you don't have to. Faulty 
performance on drive A left my Kaypro useless. 
While the details of my problem are not important, 
the lesson I learned is. 

The inherent reliability of computers lies in solid- 
state electronics, the seemingly motionless world of 
electrons inside silicon chips. Disk drives, on the other 
hand, are electromechanical devices subject to wear 
and tear. Drives are vulnerable to mechanical prob- 
lems, but we seldom think about preventive measures 
or adjustments. 

What I've learned about software that anticipates 
disk drive problems could be your gain. This software is 
different from any you have ever bought. You don't play 
with it or write with it or calculate with it; it is not 
"productive." But it is useful to a wide range of Kaypro 
users, from businessperson to maintenance techni- 
cian. Disk drive diagnostic software is best used to 
provide a baseline (point of reference) when your drives 
are performing well. Then, the real value will come 
from monitoring your drives over a period of time and 
comparing test results with the baseline. 

Few telltale signs 

Your operating system and the disk controller chip do a 
good deal to overcome drive problems. When disk 
access falters, repeated retries (five or more times) are 
automatically attempted. If a retry is successful, you 
never know that a problem, which could indicate 
impending drive failure, existed. 

Some system error messages (i.e., BDOS ERROR On 
d: Bad Sector) can also be early warnings. Have you 
ever experienced difficulty reading disks swapped 
between your two drives or between compatible 
Kaypros? Such a problem may be a message. 

The fact is, though, we all take for granted the 
continued utility of our computers; we easily dismiss 
intermittent "early warnings" as temporary glitches. 
We don't see them as warnings, only minor 

How can you check the performance of your disk 

drives? Browsing through PROFILES, perhaps you 
have noted disk drive diagnostic software from J&M 
Systems Ltd., Sheepshead Software, and Micro Cor- 
nucopia. The purpose of drive diagnostics software is 
to test your drives and diagnose problems. That way 
you can take preventive steps before a problem occurs. 

Drive mechanics 

Software from J&M Systems and Sheepshead Software 
are mechanical alignment tests for Kaypro disk drives. 
Both these packages use the Kaypro to read a special 
Dysan disk, the Digital Diagnostic Diskette (DDD), 
which is specifically written for disk drive analysis. 

A basic understanding of disk drive mechanics and 
the special format of the DDD will help you see how the 
J&M and Sheepshead software work. 

A magnetic pickup in the read/write head of your 
disk drive writes and reads a 12-mil-wide swath on a 
floppy disk. When formatting double-density drives, 
this 12-mil swath, or track, is repeated, equally spaced, 
40 times across the surface of the rotating disk. 

Ideally, every time the read/write head returns to a 
track, it should center on the previously written data. 
The head should also be perpendicular to the track 
centerline. (See Figure 1 on page 69.) 

The accuracy of read and write operations is also a 
function of the rotational speed of the disk and the time 
it takes to move the head to a given track. 

Drive performance can be defined with five factors, 
which can be checked with the kits from J&M or 
Sheepshead. These five specifications are: 

Radial alignment— head-to-track centering, mea- 
sured in mils offset. 

Hysteresis — the difference between radial align- 
ment measurements of a track accessed from one 
direction (i.e., moving toward the hub), then the other 
(i.e., moving away from the hub). 

Spindle eccentricity — deviation of data tracks from 
concentric rotation, measured in mils (i.e., the tracks 
should rotate as concentric circles). 

Head azimuth — sensor-to-track perpendicularity, 

68 Profiles 

Copyright © 1985 Pieter Burggraaf. All rights reserved. 

measured in minutes (angular) offset. 

Index hole timing — elapsed time from leading edge 
of index hole to the first sector address, measured in 

Spindle speed — the speed of disk rotation in revolu- 
tions per minute. 

Track Centerline 

Azimuth Rotation 

Tangent to Track 

Read /Write Head 


1 . The most crucial mechanical-alignment specifications are 
the radial and azimuth alignment of the read/write head to for- 
matted tracks on a floppy disk. 

Dysan's DDD 

Think of the DDD as a standard-of-measurement disk. 
First, blank disks destined to become DDDs are meticu- 
lously screened for physical and electrical quality. 
Then, each DDD is written with two timing tracks (3 & 
36). These contain precisely written data that can be 
used to test index hole timing and rotational speed. 

In addition, every DDD is written with a variety of 
intentionally misaligned tracks of data, called pro- 
gressive, alternate and azimuth offsets (see Figures 2a, 
2b, 2c on page 70). Never try to copy the DDD— it's a 
waste of time. You cannot duplicate the intentional 
misalignments, which makes any copy totally useless. 

Progressive offset 

Each DDD has six "progressive offset" tracks (0, 5, 16, 
19, 30 and 39). On these tracks, successive data fields 
are displaced progressively 1 mil further from the track 
centerline, alternating from one side to the other (see 
Figure 2a). 

When a head reads a progressive-offset track, it 
eventually reaches a point where the magnetic signal of 
a displaced data field is too weak to read. Ideally, the 
first two fields a head fails to read should be equally 
displaced on either side of the track centerline. Con- 
versely, a misaligned head will read more fields to one 
side of the centerline than it will to the other side. 

Progressive offset is used to measure radial align- 
ment and hysteresis. Radial alignment is a crucial 
specification for disk drives; most problems encoun- 
tered involve radial alignment. Six tracks of pro- 
gressive offset are provided so radial alignment can be 

checked at outer, middle and inner positions. The 
consistency of radial alignment across these tracks 
(and from one side of the disk to the other) is a measure 
of head positioning linearity. 

Alternate offset 

The DDD has three tracks (21, 24 and 27) with "alter- 
nate offset." Each of these tracks is composed of 
equally displaced (7-, 8- and 9-mil, respectively) alter- 
nate data fields (Figure 2b). 

Alternate offset data tracks are used to measure any 
eccentricity in track rotation. Eccentricity is caused by 
a bad drive spindle or faulty clamping of a floppy disk in 
the drive hub. 

Azimuth offset 

On the one "azimuth offset" track of the DDD, data is 
written with progressively greater azimuthal displace- 
ment. (A head that is perpendicular to the direction of 
track rotation is at zero degrees azimuth, the ideal 
alignment.) The azimuthal offsets are placed alter- 
nately clockwise and counterclockwise (Figure 2c). 

If a head is properly set it will eventually fail to read 
data fields that are equally rotated clockwise and 
counterclockwise. Conversely, the more the sensor is 
out of azimuth alignment, the more it will pick updata 
fields skewed in one direction of azimuthal rotation. 

All other tracks on the DDD are blank for spacing 
between the offset tracks or for user data. The user 
tracks cannot be used with CP/M because the disk 
directory would overwrite DDD test tracks. DDDs do 
not have a write enable notch, so you couldn't write to it 
if you tried. 

The translators 

Dysan's DDD is useless to Kaypro users without the 
special software from either J&M Systems or Sheeps- 
head Software. The software packages from both these 
vendors come with DDD disks, ample written instruc- 
tions, and second disks of special test programs to read 
the DDD. These programs display the mechanical con- 
dition of a drive, in graphic form, on your Kaypro 

Other software for drive diagnostics is used for ana- 
log testing. Analog testing involves complex electronic 
instrumentation, which should only be used by accom- 
plished technicians in fully equipped repair shops. 

J&M's Memory Minder 

The Memory Minder includes two test programs — one 
for early Kaypro II and 4 models, and one for 1984 
Kaypro 2, 4 and 10 (floppy drive only) models. 

Assuming that you know how to PIP and execute 
programs from the command level (A>), the J&M 
programs are almost foolproof. A main menu leads to 
single- screen menus for each of eight test routines. All 
menu commands, including those to select drive, head 
and track, are single-key entries. 

September 69 

Test results are displayed in nicely conceived graph- 
ics, several presenting test results statistically (Figure 
3), regardless of your Kaypro's graphics capability. 

Two error messages tell you if the test disk cannot be 
read or if the DDD is not in the drive being tested. (With 
one DDD disk, you must switch it between the drives 
you are testing.) 

An experienced Kaypro user might skip the manual 
initially. However, it is required reading for proper 
interpretation of test graphics. 

Memory Minder gives you two levels of testing. The 
"Quick Test" is a program-controlled run through spin- 
dle speed, index hole timing, spindle eccentricity on 
three tracks, radial alignment on three tracks, (head) 
azimuth rotation and hysteresis. Each test is rated 
"good," "marginal" or "poor." Results of poor or mar- 
ginal indicate a need for in-depth testing. 

2. The Digital Diagnostics Disk (DDD) includes intentionally 
misaligned tracks of data . 

ment, analog display), direction seek (hysteresis) and 
head rotation (azimuth). (Parenthetical notes equate 
software vendors' tests with standard drive specifica- 
tions described in this article.) 

For each of these tests, the manual briefly discusses 
general techniques of adjustment and repair. The man- 
ual is not intended to give full instructions for do-it- 
yourself repair. 

I found a few minor shortcomings in the Memory 
Minder package. The manual interchanges the terms 
"MMK," Memory Minder for Kaypros, and "DDA," an 
abbreviation for the same program under a previous 
name. This is easily overcome once you make the 
connection. Another minor problem, a "status" display, 
apparently a hexadecimal code relating to the status of 
the disk controller, is not fully explained. However, the 
code is not needed to successfully run the tests. 

SEC 1 

SEC 2 

SEC 3 

SEC 4 

SEC 5 

SEC 6 

SEC 7 

SEC 8 

SEC 9 

(a) progressive offset 

SEC 10 

SEC 11 

SEC 12 

SEC 13 

SEC 1 

SEC 3 

SEC 5 

SEC 7 

SEC 9 

SEC 11 

SEC 13 

















































SEC 2 

SEC 4 

SEC 8 

SEC 10 

SEC 6 

SEC 12 

(b) alternate offset 




1 \ 

1 j 

l \ 

/ 1 

\ \ 

1 I 

\ \ 

1 ) 

















i \ 


/ / 


I \ 


/ / 


\ \ 


/ / 

\ \ 

/ / 

\ \ 

/ / 

\ \ 

/ / 


— : 





\ \ 


/ / 


\ \ 


/ / 

\ \ 

/ / 

\ \ 

/ / 

\ \ 


/ / 


\ \ 


/ / 


/ / 


\ \ 


/ / 


\ \ 


/ / 


\ \ 


/ / 


\ \ 

/ / 

\ \ 

/ / 

\ \ 

/ / 

\ \ 

/ / 




/ / 




/ / 


\ \ 


/ / 


\ \ 


/ / 


\ \ 


/ / 


\ \ 


/ / 


\ \ 


/ / 

\ \ 

/ / 

/ / 



/ / 


I \ 


/ / 


\ \ 


/ / 


\ \ 


/ / 


\ \ 


/ / 


\ \ 


/ / 

\ \ 

/ / 





























Memory Minder has seven in-depth tests: clamping 
(spindle eccentricity), spindle speed, index hole 
timing, alignment sensitivity (radial alignment dis- 
played statistically), head alignment (radial align- 

(c) azimuth offset 

Sheepshead diagnostic kit 

Sheepshead's test disk has programs for all Kaypro 
models except the Robie. This includes separate pro- 
grams for old Kaypro lis and 4s, for old Kaypro 10s 

70 Profiles 

(floppy drive only) and for all 1984 Kaypro models 
(those with 4-MHz microprocessors). Also included are 
drive-diagnostic programs for some modified Kaypro 
lis and 4s (i.e., 5-MHz speed-up kits or 96-TPI drives). 
While each program can be run from the command 
level, programs are also tied together through a menu. 
Another master program ties together all test pro- 
grams for 1 984 model Kaypros. And a separate help file 
provides information on test interpretation. Once 
you're at a menu, all options are single-key entries. 

«< ft L I 6 N B E H T SENSITIVITY >J> 

E Exit to main sens 

Drive select 
H Head select 
S Start/stop dri«e 

I Iimer test track 
S Kiddle test iraet 
8 Soter test tract 

SS ':: niBiiBin 



685; H H If II H it 11 ft H II I! 

H U n H It H N H IS H II 

i 40% nBnuHUHHimn 



-13-12-11-18 -9 -8 -? -6 +6 +? *8 +M8+1MM3 
Radial displaceient (eils) 

EwasmSs I Brives B (OH) Head! 8 Tracfcs 39 Sates 

3. Shown is the result of a Memory Minder test for radial alignment 
to track 39, which displays the statistical percentage of successful 
reads of progressive offset fields. 

Sheepshead's package also includes three special 
test programs not used with the DDD. R/WTEST.COM 
provides an endless reading-and-writing exercise to 
run a Kaypro through its paces (a burn-in). CRT.COM 
fills a Kaypro screen with characters, providing a 
quality check. And MEMORY.COM sequentially checks 
all memory locations. 

The manual provided with the Sheepshead pro- 
grams is extensive. First, it presents a tutorial on drive 
testing using programs for clamp center (spindle 
eccentricity), radial (alignment), (head) azimuth, 
(spindle) speed, position error (hysteresis) and index 
(hole) timing. Displays of test results are either digital 
or analog (Figure 4). 

The manual also includes discussion, tips and pho- 
tographs of disk drive repair, centered on Tandon 
drives (the original drive used in Kaypros). For ex- 
ample, a savvy Kaypro user can find out how drive B 
can be used to boot CP/M. (Testing with the DDD is not 
possible unless one drive is working.) 

Be cautious, however. The manual is not a complete 
guide to drive repair and should not be treated as such. 
It assumes a user has previous experience repairing 
electromechanical components. Anyone working on a 
drive will need a service manual for that specific drive. 
(A service manual for the Tandon drive can be ordered 
with the Sheepshead package.) 

Shortcomings in the Sheepshead software are car- 
ried through into the manual. Revisions have not kept 

up with the broad range of programs available on the 
test disk (the manual comes with an addendum that 
must be read first). In addition, the manual is plagued 
with disconcerting typos. 

Micro C Disk K18 

The Micro Cornucopia drive diagnostic software is a 
write-read-verify test. Its DISKTST.COM programs for 
Kaypro II and 4, and the floppy drive of Kaypro 10 are 
write, read and verify routines. You can select the 
tracks to test and the data to write, and choose between 
write-read, read only, write only and multiple passes 
across the disk. 

DISKTST.DOC, the document file that comes with 
Micro Cornucopia's diagnostic diskette, gives a sum- 
mary of DISKTST's usefulness. Some of what this file 
has to say is: 

"The program does not exhaustively check out the 
disk drive. . . . errors . . . must be interpreted with care. 
Intermittent errors occurring throughout a broad 
range of disk addresses probably indicate a problem 
with the disk drive unit. Errors ... at consistent 
addresses within adjacent tracks may result from a. . . 
damaged . . . disk. Error free execution of the test . . . 
indicates an intact and usable diskette, and also is 
fairly good evidence of proper operation of your disk 
drive. . . . the program is . . . insensitive to drive 
problems related to head movement 

Complete drive testing, therefore, should include 
evaluation of mechanical alignment. (Note: "PIP 

drive ft head f 

radial alig»«it check 
< 18 by 18 is nowal > 

awas spindle fcward 

13 12 11 18 88F68678 S 18 11 12 13 

(tress <space ter> f or aev track 

4. Shown is the result, displayed on an analog scale, of Sheepshead 
Software's test of radial alignment to track 39, 

A:=B:*.*[v]" of a full disk is also a write-read-verify 
test.) The real value of the Micro Cornucopia diagnostic 
disk is its memory test programs. 

Value and caveats 

Either the J&M or Sheepshead disk drive diagnostic 
package can help you monitor drive performance. But 
nothing is without its caveats. 

First, this software will not make you a repair techni- 
cian. (If you don't know where you can get your Kaypro 

September 71 



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repaired reliably, you'd better find out now before you're 
forced into a quick decision.) DDD-based software can 
help you anticipate problems before the drive fails. 
Then you can approach a repair technician with solid 
diagnostic data. 

Second, be aware that the dimensions of floppy 
disks, including the DDD, are affected by temperature 
and humidity. For example, expansion caused by a 
temperature change of 20 degrees Fahrenheit can 
move the outer tracks up to 1 mil. High humidity can 
cause additional change in track location. So test your 
drives after your system has warmed up. And be sure 
that the DDD has time to adjust to the temperature 
inside the drive. 

Third, any modifications that have been made to 
your Kaypro, particularly speed increases, can affect 
drive test results. Both spindle speed and index hole 
timing tests use the inherent timing of the micro- 
processor clock in your particular Kaypro. Any 
changes from what the Kaypro factory supplied could 
produce false test results. 

Finally, you must realize that disk drive mechanical 
specifications are defined with a range of values and 
interpretation must be tempered with practical re- 
sults. Consistent test results are, most often, better 
than chasing a dead-on specification. □ 

Pieter Burggraaf, a two-year Kaypro user, is senior 
editor of Semiconductor International, a trade maga- 
zine of Cahners Publishing Co. He lives in Phoenix, 

Quick Reference Summary 

Product name: Disk Drive Diagnostic Kit 

Manufacturer: Sheepshead Software 

P.O. Box 486 

Boonville, CA 95415 

Hardware needed: Will test older Kaypro II, 4 or 10, or 

1984 Kaypro 2, 4 or 10. 

List price: $88.00 (or $99.00 with Tandon service 


Product name: Memory Minder CP/M 

Manufacturer: J&M Systems 

15100-A Central Ave. SE 

Albuquerque, NM 87123 

Hardware needed: Will test older Kaypro II, 4 or 10, or 

1984 Kaypro 2, 4 or 10. 

List price: $99.00 

Product name: Micro C Kaypro Disk K18 

Manufacturer: Micro Cornucopia 

P.O. Box 223 

Bend, OR 97709 

Hardware needed: Kaypro II, 2, 4 or 10. 

List price: $12 


72 Profiles 

"Out keys the competition" 
even more! ] J f 

"XtraKey is the best (keyboard) translation program I've seen . . . "—Philip Bond, Micro Cornucopia 

' 'Ingenious . . .If saving large blocks of time ... is important to you, I wouldn 't 
hesitate to get this program."— Brock Meeks, Computer News 

Programs like WordStar, dBASE II and hundreds of others 
are a whole lot easier and faster to use when XtraKey 
is around.The secret is XtraKey's ability to reduce 

text or long command sequences (whatever you hate 
typing over and over.again) to just one or two key- 
strokes! Close a letter or insert boilerplate in split- 
seconds. Change margins and tabs instantly. Log onto bul- 
letin boards at the touch of a key. Create database "macros." 

Unlike other "key" programs (the "smarts", "magics", "kwiks", etc.), XtraKey can redefine 
any key on your Kaypro's keyboard including keypad keys . . . with no limit on definition lengths. 
Plus our advanced XShift feature lets keys have up to 1 6 meanings without losing their normal 
functions. Use, change or make up new definitions anytime; no need to exit to CP/M. And, if you 
make a mistake entering a definition, XtraKey's backspace feature lets you correct it, ~| — -4— 

You can even access your printer or video display. Address an envelope while editing a docu- 
ment. Change from regular to compressed type while working on a spreadsheet. Or call up your 
own custom help or menu screens. 

No other program can match XtraKey's list of features! Built-in print screen (screen dump) gives 
instant hard copy of your Kaypro's current display. Batch processing. Automatic definition file 
loading. Input pause. Definition chaining. Printer redirection. Clear screen and more. Even with all 
its capabilities, XtraKey is still easy-to-use and learn. Includes new 80-page manual, quick 
reference card, and predefined function sets for many popular programs. Still only $49.95. 

Trademarks: XtraKey, XScreen and XShift - Xpert Software; dBASE li - Ashlon-Tate; 
WordStar — MicroPro International; Kaypro — Kaypro Corp.; CP/M — Digital Research 

The NewXZvi-Kcu 


"It works and it's solid well worth 

it. . ." Tom Enright, Technical Editor, Profiles 

XScreen makes instant copies of your Kaypro's j. 
current screen display on your printer OR allows you 
to save screen copies in standard word processing 
text files. Works anytime, even while running your 
favorite program. -\ — -j 

Copy menus, spreadsheet totals, bulletin board 
messages, etc. Then use your word processor to in- 
sert screen copies directly into a document where 
they can be edited! WordStar users can even tell 
XScreen to eliminate the top rows and far right col- 
umns for instant letters and envelopes, 

XScreen is easy-to-use and requires no instal- 
lation. Only $24.95. See special offer below. 


XtraKey and XScreen will run on all Kaypros except the 16 
and 286i. To order XtraKey, send check or money order for 
$49.95 plus $3.00 shipping (U.S. & Canada). To order 
XScreen, send $24.95 plus $2.00 shipping. SPECIAL OF- 
FER — Order both XtraKey and XScreen tor only $59.95 
plus $3.00 shipping. California residents MUST add 6% 
sales tax. Inquire on foreign orders. Specify Kaypro II 
(SS/DD) or Kaypro 4 (DS/DD) disk format. VISA and Master- 
Card accepted (provide card number and expiration date). 
All orders please include telephone number. 



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: PkUSSS.GSsfctoping. 

September 73 

The "Un-Database" 
from Telion Software 

Database programs make you organize information into a 
form. That's fine for an address list where every entry 
contains the same old boring things. But how do you 
"database" your free-form text files, like novels, business letters, 
screenplays, annotated bibliographies, personal correspondence 
or client case histories? With a database program you're just plain 
out of luck! 

Now Free Filer lets you keep track of your words 
like you do your lists. That's why we call Free Filer the 

How does FREE FILER do it? Free Filer divides your 
diskette into parcels of information, much like index cards. It will 
segment your text files into paragraph parcels automatically. Or 
you can specify other data parcels yourself. 

You can search, alphabetically sort, and print each parcel 
effortlessly. You can even combine parcels to create a new card. 
Free Filer can search all or some of your files on disk, going 
through them one by one. And if you have lots of files, that can 
save you a bundle of time. 

And it's fast. Free Filer can blitz through a 5 5 K file in less 
than 25 seconds, 

"I am taken at the program's speed and simplicity. I would 
recommend it for everyone - it's another tool to make your com- 
puter more powerful and you more efficient." - Peter A 
McWilliams, author of The Personal Computer Book. 

"Free Filer is one of those wonderful little general-purpose 
text utilities that simplify life with computers. Recommended." 
- Jerry Pournelle, Byte Magazine. 

Free Filer is directly available from Telion Software for 
$49. 95 in most popular CP/M and MS-DOS formats, including 
Kaypro, Morrow, Apple CP/M and IBM PC. 
Now shipping 4.0 with "AND," "OR," and "NOT," (boolean) 
searching with even faster searching and sorting 
performance. Calif, residents add 6%. Credit card add 5%. In- 
clude 12.00 shipping and handling. 


P.O. Box 1464 

La Mirada, CA 90637-1464 

Phone 213-547-9673 


(continued from page 37) 

20 questions per test, you know all its answers. 

While neither one is perfect, you could combine the 
two to make the ultimate study tool. Too bad I just 
graduated and had my own trial by SAT two years ago. 
With study programs like these, I could've been at MIT 
by now. Q 

Benson Wong is a recent graduate of Patrick Henry 
High School in San Diego, California, where he was 
an advanced computer science student. He was 
assisted in the preparation of this article by San 
Diego writer Mary DeDanan. 

Quick Reference Summary 

Product Name: College Board SAT Preparation Series 

Uses: practice for taking the Scholastic Aptitude Test 

Audience: High school students or anyone preparing to 

take the SAT. 

Noteworthy features: Easy to load, choice of number 

of questions to be answered, scoring similar to SAT's, 

determines problem areas that need study, bonus and 

limited warranty for improved scores. 

Manufacturer: Krell Software Corporation 

1320 Stony Brook Road 

Stony Brook, NY 11790 


Hardware needed: Kaypro 2,4, 10 

List price: $299.95 

Product name: The Coach; also called College Board 
Score Builder 
Uses: same as above 
Audience: same as above 

Noteworthy features: answers shown with questions, 
reading comprehension sections shown onscreen, dia- 
grams and hints provided in math section, word defini- 
tions and explanations of analogies provided in verbal 

Manufacturer: Resource Software International 
330 New Brunswick Ave. 
Fords, NJ 08863 

Hardware needed: same as above 
List price: $34.95 □ 

"Yeah, my mom is afraid of computers. 
Why do you ask?" 

74 Profiles 

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• 6 Month Warranty 

• And . . . 


from Sorcim/IUS, the world's best electronic 
spreadsheet, is included FREE with all Trantor Hard Disks. 

Extremely fast and powerful, SuperCalc2 is THE big step up in 
spreadsheet capability. 

And, if you're wondering about learning "one more program," 
SuperCalc2's simple command language is so easy to learn you'll 
be building your own super spreadsheets right away. 


1690 65th Street Emeryville, CA 94608 (415) 652-3222 
Telex 756329 (DRIVE C UD), WU EASYLINK 62533500. 

September 75 

Write or call 
for a free catalog 

(also included with each order from) 


P.O. Box 223 
Bend, OR 97709 
(503) 382-5060 

KayPro Disk K1 ?££ 

Modem software 

KayPro Disk K2 

Really oodles of spiffy little 
(and big) programs to help you 
get full use of your KayPro. 

DASM: A true Zilog format disas- 
sembler for 8080 and 280 object 
(.COM) files. Now you can turn 
COM files into .MAC files 
UNERA.COM: Simply enter "UNERA" 
fol lowed by the name of the file you just 
erased and presto, the erased file is back! 
A lifesaver! '•'•"' 

FINDB54.COM: Checks an entire disk, re- 
ports bad sectors, and then creates a spe- 
cial file containing those sectors. You save a 
bundle on disks. 

CAT2: This is a group of programs which create and maintain a 
single directory of all the programs you have on all your disks. 
Even keeps track of which programs are backed up and which 

UNSPOOL.COM: Use your KayPro 1 1 and print files at the same 
time. Doesn't slow down system response! 
DUMP, . . . and all have documentation on disk. 

KayPro Disk K13 
Source of flg-FORTH 

KayPro Disk K14 
Smartmodem Program 

KayPro Disk K15 
Hard Disk Utilities 

KayPro Disk K16 
Pascal Compiler 

KayPro Disk K17 
Z80 Tools 

KayPro Disk K3 

KayPro Disk K4 

This disk contains one 191K game. Adventure. ADV/.COM: 
This is the latest, greatest, most cussed adventure ever devised 
by half-mortals. This is the 550-point version so the cave is 
greatly expanded and the creatures are much smarter. 

KayPro DIs : ■ ".$ 
System Dla^.iosis 

Just as we finished editing the routines on this disk, we 
received a copy of KayPro's diagnostic disk. The memory test 
and drive exercise routines on this disk are more powerful than 
KayPro's versions. (Plus, it's only $12) Setup for KayPro II & 4. 

9-5 PST Monday-Friday 

DISK S12.00 ea. 
postage paid 


for Kaypro II, 4 and 10 

the display shifts to show details of the green and flag. For one 

to four players. 

DUCK is an offshoot of aliens (pardon the pun). Huntertriesto 

shoot down the ducks while ducks try to bomb the hunter. 

(Much fairer than real life.) 

CASTLE is an adventure in which you select your attributes 

(strength, dexterity, and intelligence), and you getto purchase 

arms and protection. Great documentation and a very 

interesting game. 

KSTROKES is a keyboard translator similar to Smartkey. Bill 

Forbes did an excellent job creating this program. You can 

create and save translation files on disk. The program even 

includes a table which generates WordStar commands from 

the KayPro's keypad! You can define 8 keystrokes at up to 63 

characters each. 

KayPro Disk K5 
MX-80 Graphics 

KayPro Disk K6 
Word Processing Utilities 

KayPro Disk K7 
Small C Version 2 Compiler 

KayPro Disk K8 
Small C Version 2 Source 

KayPro Disk K19 
Prowrlter Graphics 

KayPro Disk K20 
Color Graphics Routines 

KayPro Disk K21 
SBASIC Routines & Screen Dump 
SBASIC: Finally a disk of SBASIC software. There are some 
good examples of structured programming on this disk 
(including one program written both ways so you can see the 

SCREEN DUMP: This is a screen dump for all KayPro's new 
and old. You can buy a similar package elsewhere for $60. 

KayPro Disk K9 

KayPro Disk K10 

KayPro Disk K11 
Library A Checkbook Programs 
CHECKS: This has been a very popular group of programs. 
Categorizes checks so you can keep track of which are tax 
deductible and which get charged to which projects. Includes 
source and example check files. Very powerful. 
LIBR: This is a complete set of library routines which let you 
.group files into a single file called a library. Then CP/M sees 
them as a single file, but with the library routines, you can list 
them out separately, run them separately, or divide them up 
again. Almost like a unix environment. 
DISPLAY, VLIST, PGLST: Additional screen and print utilities 

KayPro Disk K23 
Fast Terminal Software & New BYE 

KayPro Disk K12 

KayPro Disk K24 
MBASIC Games & Keyboard Translator 

We sifted through many, many games before coming up with 
these gems. All will work on any KayPro and all come in 
MBASIC source. 

USOPEN shows you the fairway on the screen. You select the 
club and direction for each stroke. After you reach the green 

KayPro Disk K25 
Z80 Macro Assembler 

KayPro Disk K26 
EPROM Programmer & Character Editor 

KayPro Disk K27 
Typing Tutor 

A complete typing tutor for beginners and experts. Written in 
Australia, it comes complete with source. This was customized 
for KayPro II, 4 and 10 by Barry Cole of WLAKUG. 
The documentation says you can learn to touch type in 8 hours 
(probably a little longer for mortals). 

KayPro Disk K28 
Modem 730 

KayPro Disk K29 
Turbo Pascal Games 1 With Source 

KayPro Disk K22 
ZCPR (Again) 

This disk is filled with ZCPR files. You get ZCPR for the KayPro 
II, KayPro 4, and the KayPro 10. This version is fixed so that you 
can pass control characters from the keyboard to the printer, 
and you can choose to have it recognize the semi-colon for 
drive select (as well as the colon). So you can enter "B;" or "B:" 
to select drive B. Super neat! 

ZCPR, for those of you who don't know, makes CP/M a lot 
friendlier. It searches drive A for any COM file it doesn't find on 
the current drive, the TYPE command scrolls text 24 lines at a 
time, and a new LIST command outputs a file to the printer. 

KayPro Disk K30 
Turbo Pascal Games II With Source 

KayPro Disk K31 
Turbo Bulletin Board 

Complete Bulletin Board Package for only $12 

KayPro Disk K32 
Fonth-83 Much Fancier Forth 

KayPro Disk K33 
A super utilities disk containing: 

NewSweep, Nulull, Superzap, & VDO-KP. 

KayPro Disk K34 
Five games plus source (mostly Turbo); 

includes improved Othello and Eliza. 

KayPro Disk K35 
Small C Compiler & Source — Vers 2.1; 

(Requires Microsoft's M80) 

KayPro Disk K36 
Small C Library of 100 Functions. 



Micro Cornucopia Magazine 

Want to speed up your Kaypro? Want to find out what's going on under the 
Kaypro's hood? Want to know who's selling good products and providing good 
support |and who isn't)? Want to find really inexpensive software? Then you're in 
the right place. 

Micro Cornucopia |Micro C) is the friendly journal for those ofyou who want 
to stay abreast of the latest information on Kaypros and other single board 
systems, or want to upgrade your Kaypro yourself without paying an arm and 
a leg. We have regular columns on Pascal, C, S-BASIC, FORTH as well as the 
popular "On Your Own" feature for those ofyou who plan to make the 
Kaypro your ticket to independence. 

You can get all this and more whenyou order the special S2.00 sample 
copy. In fact, you'll even find out how to turn a Kdypro II into a Kaypro 4 
| or Kaypro B|. 
Subscription Rates 

1 yr. [6 issues - bulk rate) $16.00 

1 yr. |6 issues - first class) S22.00 

1 yr. (Canada & Mexico) 522.00 

I yr. (other foreign) S30.00 

Schematic Packages 

Finally, a complete schematic for your port- 
able Kaypro, logicalfy laid out on a single 24" by 
36" sheet, plus a very complete illustrated Theory of 
Operation that's keyed to the schematic. You'll get detailed 
information on your processor board that's available nowhere 

For instance, those ofyou with the 10 and new 84 systems get a thorough 
rundown onyourvideo section complete with sample video control programs in 
assembly language and Pascal. Of course, all packages contain serial and parallel port 
details and programming examples as well as complete coverage of the processor, dock, 
I/O, and disk controller (information that is not even available in Kaypro's own Dealer Service 
Kaypro Schematic Packages 

Kaypro II & 4 (pre-84) 

Kaypro 10 (pre-84) 

Kaypro 84 series (II & 4) 

All prices include postage. 

Special Offerl 

Your First Schematic Package [If you also order subscription) 


The PRO-8 package from Micro Comu- 
ucopia upgrades your Kaypro 4 (pre-84) 
to a Kaypro 8 with 784K bytes (96 directory 
entries) per Tandom 100-4 (or equivalent) 
quad-density drive. Plus, you can select your 
own cursor character (and change it at will). 
The package includes the new PRO-8 monitor 
ROM, a disk of formatters & copiers, and printed 
instructions. (We even tell you how to turn your 
Kaypro II into a Kaypro 4.) All you add is one or two 
double-sided double-density (390K), or double- 
sided quad-density (784K) drives. You get over 1.5 
Megabytes on a two-drive quad-density system! 
This new system can read, write and format Kaypro II 
and Kaypro 4 disks as well as Kaypro 8 disks. And it 
recognizes each disk type automatically! 
All this for only »49«l 

Watch Micro Cornucopia for more Kaypro compatibles. Call 
or write for information on the other Kaypro II and 4 ROMS 
from Micro Cornucopia. 







Subscription (1 year-6 issues) 
(See subscription rates above) 


Kaypro Disks for 2, 4 & 10 — 
5" SSDD #s 




Make check or mc 

Kaypro Catalog 


ney order payable to: 

Other Items: 

Micro Cornucopia P.O. Box 223 • Bend, OR 97709 

Card Nn 


□ MasterCard 

:" : ..■'■ 


Prices include media, package, TOTAL 
1st Class Postage ENCLOSED 


300 BAUD 

(continued from page 18) 

Each course costs $795 and is 
worth three credit hours. All online 
connect charges are included in the 
price of the course, and students 
receive unlimited online time when 
participating in a Connect Ed 

You can enroll online via The 
Source (AAH298), MCI Mail (Con- 
nected Education), or EIES (Lev), 
or by calling Connect Ed's New York 

Ancient online educator 

Plato is the name of Control Data 
Corporation's (CDC) computer- 
based education system. Online 
since 1976, Plato is the oldest of all 
online education systems. 

Until recently Plato was avail- 
able only to businesses, univer- 
sities and others who could afford it 
(original costs for 24-hour access to 
Plato included leasing a terminal 
for $1,000 a month). By moving 
Plato into the "public domain" via 
its "Homelink" network, CDC has 
made it possible for the home com- 
puter user to take advantage of 
what Plato has to offer. 

Kaypro 16 owners can use their 
graphics capabilities to produce 
high-resolution on-screen graphs 
and charts. For a $49.95 commu- 
nications package, a $25 annual 
fee and $7.75 an hour connect 
time, the cost of CDC's Homelink is 
comparable to the other major 
information utilities. 

The courses offered on Plato 
read like a catalog from a univer- 
sity. "Astronomy: Constellation 
Study," 'Aviation: Ground school," 
"Chemistry: Naming Acids and 
Bases," "Language: Basic English 
Grammar" (as if your eighth grade 
English teacher Ms. Grundy didn't 
teach you enough), and "Math: Sol- 
ving Quadratic Equations." Stu- 
dents begin at their own level of 
knowledge and proceed at their 
own pace. 

Plato is also offered through 
local universities. To find out if a 
nearby university offers Plato 
courses, check with the Indepen- 
dent Studies office. Credit for Plato 
courses varies, and credits are 

transferable at the discretion of the 
receiving institution. 

Student body benefits 

What type of person does this 
"high-tech preppie" education 
appeal to (besides high-tech prep- 
pies?) The possibilities are simply 

The handicapped community 
comes instantly to mind. Anyone 
homebound can benefit from an 
electronic classroom. Other likely 
candidates include single parents 
who want to go back to school, 
professionals with little free time 
who are seeking advanced degrees, 
and procrastinators (like me) who 

the professor in a traditional face- 
to-face classroom setting are more 
inclined to do so from the comfort of 
their computer keyboard." (Those 
who have agonized over raising 
their hands in a classroom can 
relate to that statement.) 

Open and closed book 

Will online education replace more 
traditional education? I doubt it. 
(Besides, I hear frat parties lose 
something in the phosphor.) 

Though I can't vouch for the 
quality or viability of these pro- 
grams (only your college registrar 
knows for sure), this new breed of 
education does offer an exciting 

The Harvard Business 

Review placed WBSI 

in the top five among 

management programs. 

never finished that last semester 
but plan to go back to school "real 
soon now." 

But how good is electronic edu- 
cation? Some consider it nothing 
more than a glorified correspon- 
dence course. 


Tests show that it is possible to 
achieve more and retain more with 
correspondence courses than with 
regular classes. Monty McMahon, 
director of Independent Studies at 
the University of Nebraska, says 
that an online course can be better 
designed than a traditional course. 
McMahon says an online course 
tends to be better organized 
because the entire course is in 
printed form, and it allows students 
the luxury of examining it in its 
entirety from day one. 

Levinson says: "Students get a 
lot more interaction from an online 
course. Student and professor can 
interact on a private level — some- 
thing that rarely happens in a 
classroom of 200 people. Because 
an online course has a certain 
built-in ambiguity, students who 
might not participate or question 

alternative to a large part of the 

Now if you'll excuse me . . . I'm 
late for class. □ 

Telelearning Systems 

San Francisco, CA 

In Calif. (800) 455-3276 

Outside Calif. (800) 225-3276 

Western Behavioral Sciences 


La Jolla, CA 


Connected Education 
Bronx, New York 

Intercultural Network 

University of California, San Diego 

La Jolla, CA 


National Education Corporation 
Newport Beach, CA 

Plato's Homelink Network 
Control Data Corporation 

78 Profiles 


(continued from page 22} 

mands?"). You divide that into 
smaller pieces (movement com- 
mands, editing commands, etc.), 
and those pieces into still smaller 
ones, refining and extending your 
outline, focusing on each small sec- 
tion, until you have everything 
worked out in detail. As you work, 
you use the viewing commands to 
see how your current section fits 
into the overall scheme, and you 
use the editing commands to rear- 
range things as new ideas crop up. 
This approach suits TOUR20 very 
well and can turn huge projects 
into a series of manageable steps. 

• Brainstorming. You can also 
use the brainstorming approach. 
Here you put TOUR20 into its 
APPEND mode and bang in a series 
of ideas, without regard to their 
relationship to each other or their 
level of generality. In the process, 
you create a list of ideas, questions, 
and odd bits of information. Then, 
you go back over your list, using 
CUT, PASTE, and other editing 
commands to discard the junk and 
to group related details under more 
general ideas, "four structure and 
your controlling idea grow out of 
the details as you fight to get them 
in order. This approach also works 
but doesn't go as smoothly as the 
top-down approach, largely be- 
cause it's inherently messier, and 
partly because TOUR20 makes it 
easier to work with small sections 
than with the whole outline. 

• Creating the Final Product. 
With either method, your final 
steps will be adding any necessary 
text with INTRODUCE and SUM- 
MARIZE, and then creating a 
paper printout (which is formatted 
with indentations) or a disk file 
(which has no indentations, unfor- 
tunately) to use for reference. All 
the output is done through a sepa- 
rate program, ROFFTOUR— not the 
easiest program to make friends 
with and not up to the quality of 
TOUR20 itself. 

• Finding TOUR20 , s Weak 
Spots. TOUR20 has three glaring 
problems in its generally solid user 

1) You can enter a very long head- 

ing— TOUR20 will simply wrap the 
line when you hit the edge of the 
screen — but after 134 characters, 
TOUR20 will starts your text in the 
next heading, without any warn- 
ing. You don't find out what's hap- 
pened until you hit < RETURN > . 

2) If you accidentally hit A C dur- 
ing a session, you drop straight out 
of TOUR20 into CP/M, without any 
chance to save your work. 

3) If you hit A Z accidentally, 
TOUR20 goes into an infinite loop 
(at least on my machine). 

You're warned against these last 
two in the documentation, but 
that's no protection against acci- 
dents — and no substitute for good 
error-trapping. All three problems 
need to be fixed. 

• Is TOUR20 worth having? 
Yes — if you're willing to make your- 
self responsible for avoiding the 
three traps mentioned above. I 
think TOUR20 is an interesting 
new program and easy to use, now 
that I've got a feel for how it works 
and understand its limits. It lets me 
do things I can't do with a word 

processor, and because it works 
entirely in memory, it's quite fast. 

At first, TOUR20 and I circled 
each other like two stray cats, but 
now it's settled in to a regular space 
on my working disks. 

TOUR20 was originally released 
as "shareware" (free distribution, 
$30 suggested contribution), but 
Ed Taychert has now generously 
released it completely into the pub- 
lic domain and plans to remove the 
shareware notice for TOUR21 as 

• Where to Get VD025 and 
TOUR20. Both VD025 and 
TOUR20 are probably still too new 
to be in most public domain soft- 
ware libraries. If you have a 
modem, you can find these pro- 
grams on most CP/M bulletin 
boards. If you don't have a modem, 
find someone in your local users' 
group who does, and ask him or her 
to get the programs for you. 

One final comment: both VD025 
and TOUR20 are fine examples of 
what the public domain is capable 
of producing. □ 

Vo, e^lLLY, WE DON'T REFER To TR££>£ 
AS 'HARD cori£S'i THEY'RE ckllEP e>ooKs !' J 

September 79 

10 Powerful 

Owners to 
Stop Using 
Their Old 
Softwa r e. , 




The Perfect™ Software that came 
bundled with your Kaypro® was good. 
But now, there's a whole new Perfect 
Software 2.0 series— Perfect Writer,™ 
Perfect Calc™ and Perfect Filer™ 
programs — that's even better. 


New Perfect Software 2.0 
is easier to use. 

Perfect Software 2.0 features pop-up 
menus that use simple English lan- 
guage words. You can handle every 
function with the touch of a single key- 
stroke, so you never have to memorize 
complicated commands again. And be- 
cause Perfect programs share common 
commands, you only have to learn one 
to know how to use them all. 


New Perfect Software 2.0 
is more convenient. 

Now you can handle important docu- 
ment utilities, plus move from one 
Perfect program to another, without 
having to exit to CP/M® That saves 
you time! 


New Perfect Software 2.0 
is backed by comprehensive 
customer, ^^ support. 

Answers to 
questions are 
as close as your 
telephone. Just 
call our special 
customer service 
number and get 
instant help! 



The new Perfect Writer 
program comes with a 
spelling checker and 

They're both included with the pro- 
gram! The Perfect Speller™ disk helps 
you prevent spelling mistakes. And the 
new Perfect Thesaurus™ disk helps you 
choose exactly the right word for what 
you're writing. So now it's easier to 
write better. 


Format and print 
your document in one 
simple step. 

Just select the print option, and auto- 
matically format your document at the 
same time. And Perfect Writer features 
support most popular printers, too. 


The new Perfect Filer 
program lets you build 
larger databases. And 
store them on one disk. 

room for more information. And you 
can store up to 16 databases on one 


The new Perfect Filer 
program is more versatile. 

You can manage your information like 
never before. Sort records according to 
nine different criteria, alphabetical and 
numerical. Plus, you can automatically 
transfer data between files. 

You can transfer data from your Perfect Filer 
database to a Perfect Calc spreadsheet and use 
it to develop projections, reports and analyses. 


Use Perfect Filer data 
to build your new 
Perfect Calc spreadsheet. 

Here's capability you never had until 
now. Use the Perfect Filer program to 
enter and sort alphabetical and numer- 
ical data. Then, you can trans- 
fer the data to a Perfect Calc 
spreadsheet, without any mod- 
ification, and use it to develop 
sales reports, projections — 
virtually any kind of analysis. 


saves you time 
and keystrokes. 

You can sort your Perfect Filer database accord- 
ing to nine different numerical and alphabetical 

Now you can put up to 128 different 
fields in each Perfect Filer record — 

Spreadsheet operation has 
never been so simple. With 
regional recalculation, you 
can change some numbers, 
without changing them all. 
What's more, you can move 
blocks of data around your 
spreadsheet without having 
to rekey information. 

Perfect S 


New Perfect Software 2.0 
is easier to get. 

Now the best news of all. The new 
Perfect Software 2.0 family is available 
now at a special price just for Kaypro 
owners. Do it today— and start working 
faster, easier and better! 

Perfect Software 2.0 series is compati- 
ble with all Kaypro II and Kaypro 4 
models originally bundling Perfect 

SPECIAL OFFER! Please send me the 
Perfect Software 2.0 programs I've indicated 
for $49.95 plus $5 handling for each 

□ Perfect Writer (suggested list $199.00) 

□ Perfect Filer (suggested list $199.00) 

□ Perfect Calc (suggested list $199.00) 

□ Perfect Link (suggested list $129.00) 

□ SAVE EVEN MORE! Get the Perfect Library 
with all three programs for just $99.95, plus 
$10 handling, and we'll also give you Perfect 
Link telecommunications software for $9.95! 
A $726.00 value for $109.90. 

California residents add 6% sales tax. 
Enclosed is my check for the amount of 

$ payable to THORN EMI Computer 

Software, Inc. 

_ STATE . 


Mail to: THORN EMI Computer Software, Inc. 

RO. Box 16549, Irvine, CA 92714 pfsp-85 

For faster m 


order direct [ 

using your 

credit card. 

Call (800) 


In California, 

call (800) 






I The Perfect 


I Work Better. 


Computer Software, Inc. 

Costa Mesa, CA 92626. 

Kaypro is a registered trademark of Kaypro Corporation. 
CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research 
Corporation. Perfect Software, Perfect Writer, Perfect Filer, 
Perfect Calc, Perfect Speller, Perfect Thesaurus are trade- 
marks of Perfect Software, Inc., used under license. 
© 1984. THORN EMI Computer Software, Inc. 
All rights reserved. 

2.0 for Kaypro: 

You type it in 
and save !!! 

Kaypro owners . . . you can learn 
to activate our typesetting sys- 
tem within very little time. Books, 
manuals, newsletters, etc. can 
be produced at lower cost. By 
mail or by modem. Call or write 





226 So. 16th St. • Lincoln, NE 68508 
(402) 475-5533 

Quality Service 


Here-s a program for your child 
To make that spelling gradego wild. 
Customized lists from their book, 
Help provided, need they look. 
A list shows the words they miss, 
Spelling drills cease and desist. 
So if your child desires an "A", 
SPELL-SO-WELL shows the way. 

Send check or money order to: 

Edu-Kids Software Co. 

627-C Archdale Drive 
Charlotte, NC 28210 




State: Zip: 

($29.95 plus $2.00 shipping & handling) 
(N. C. residents add 4.5% sales tax) 


Trademarks: Kaypro (Kaypro Corp.), CP/M 
(Digital Research, Inc.) 


Computers deal only with binary 
numbers, and the smallest piece of 
information a computer can work 
with is a single binary digit (0 or 1), 
which is called a "bit." Your Kaypro 
usually works with a group of eight 
bits, called a "byte," which might 
look something like this: 10011101. 
Depending on its context, a single 
byte can represent an instruction 
telling the computer what to do, a 
numeric value (like the number of 
lines on a page), or a character (like 
the letter 'A"). 

Hexadecimal Numbers. It's very 
inconvenient for humans to work 
with bytes in a form like 10011101, 
so they are often translated into 
hexadecimal numbers, which are 
more compact. Technical prog- 
rams like DU, for example, usually 
display bytes as hexadecimal num- 
bers. These hexadecimal numbers 
work much like the familiar dec- 
imal ones except that where the 
decimal system has 10 single digits 
(0-9), the hexadecimal system has 
16 single digits (0, 1 ... 8, 9, A, B, C, 
D, E, F). In hexadecimal numbers, 
when you add 1 to hexadecimal F, 
you get 10 hexadecimal (which 
equals 16 decimal). To get a fuller 
explanation of hexadecimal num- 
bers, read my article "Bits, Bytes, 
and Hexadecimal Numbers" on 
page 35 of the July/August 1985 

Hexadecimal numbers are usu- 
ally written with a trailing H to 
distinguish them from decimal 
numbers, so that hexadecimal 1A 
is written 1AH or lAh. I use a lower- 
case h to show hexadecimal num- 
bers, except when I'm reproducing 
what you'll see on your screen, as in 
the examples from the DU session. 
You never type the h when entering 
a hexadecimal number while 
you're using DU. 

ASCII Characters. A byte can 
represent a character, like the letter 
'A," but the relationship is arbi- 
trary — there has to be a system to 

specify which byte represents 
which character. In the microcom- 
puter world, the most commonly 
used system is ASCII (American 
Standard Code for Information 
Interchange). In the back of your 
Kaypro User's Guide, you'll find an 
ASCII chart, which lists each pos- 
sible character together with its 
corresponding hexadecimal value: 
41h equals A, 42h equals B, etc. 

The ASCII characters are repre- 
sented by bytes that use only seven 
of the possible eight bits— the 
eighth bit (called the high bit) is 
always set to 0. WordStar, however, 
uses this eighth bit for its own pur- 
poses. In a WordStar document file, 
some characters (the last letter in a 
word, for example) have this eighth 
bit set to 1, so. they are no longer 
standard ASCII characters. That's 
why if you use CP/M's TYPE com- 
mand to list a WordStar document 
file on the screen, you'll see odd 
graphics characters instead of let- 
ters in various places. Fortunately 
DU removes these eighth bits from 
every byte in its ASCII display, so 
that when you display part of a 
WordStar file, you see only normal 
characters. □ 

How Disks Are 

Inside the square, flat package 
people call a floppy disk is a circular 
piece of flexible plastic with a gray- 
brown magnetic coating on both 
sides. This smooth, glossy surface 
is as featureless as it looks, until 
you format the disk. When you do 
format the disk, you make mag- 
netic marks on that surface, divid- 
ing it into tracks, arranged like 
concentric rings, and sectors, 
which cut up the tracks like slices 
of a pie (see Figure 1). If you have 
double-sided drives (Kaypro 2X, 4, 
and 10), both sides of the disk will 
be formatted. If you have single- 
sided drives (Kaypro II and 2), only 
(continued on page 83) 

82 Profiles 


(continued from page 32) 

Where to Find Them 

Advent Products, Inc.: 3154-F E. La 
Palma Ave., Anaheim, CA 92806 
(800/821-8778; 800/521-7182) 
Numbers & Math-$19.95 
Letters 8c Language-$19.95 
BASIC Tutorial-$19.95 

American Training International: 12638 
Beatrice St., Los Angeles, CA 90066 
(213/823-1129; 800/421-4827) 
Skill Builder Series-$3995 each 
Training Power Series-$75 each 

Answer in Computers, The: (619/287- 

Torricelli Series 

Dynacomp, Inc.: 1064 Gravel Rd„ Web- 
ster, NY 14580 (716/671-6167; 800/- 

Master Drill-$18,95 

Teacher's Aide-$17.95 

Teacher's Gradebook-$49.95 

Spell Master-$39.95 


Management Simulator-$29.95 

Trivia Mania-$39.95 

Public Interest Software, Center for 
Science in the Public Interest: 1755 S St. 
NW Washington, DC 20009 (202/- 



Resource Software International: 330 
New Brunswick Avenue, Fords, New 
Jersey 08863 (201/738-8500) 

Modules for Grades K-College- 

$34.95 each 

Automatic Test Author-$89.95 

Software Academy: 2222 Morley 
Street, San Diego, CA 92111 (619/- 

Professor 3T Series-$69 

Artificial Intelligence Version-$199 

Telion Software: P.O. Box 1464, La Mir- 
ada, CA 90637 (714/994-5135) 

Language Tutor-$29.95 

Memory-$29.95 □ 


(continued from page 82) 

one side will be formatted. 

Each sector on your disk is a 
pigeonhole in which your Kaypro 
can store information, and it can be 
located through its address — the 
combination of its track number 
(from 0-79 for double-sided drives 
or 0-39 for single-sided) and its sec- 
tor number (from 1-40) within a 
given track. The outermost track 
(track 0) on a Kaypro disk is used to 
store most of the CP/M operating 
system and is often called the sys- 
tem track. The next track (track 1) 
is used to store the directory of files 
on the disk and the rest of the CP/M 
operating system. Tracks 2 and 
beyond are used to store your files 
and are usually called the data or 
storage tracks. □ 

Update your OKIDATA 

and other open spool printers 

with our patented self-inking ribbons. 

Controlled Printout Devices will outlast ordinary spooled ribbons at least 15 to 1 . 

Please write or phone for complete information. 



State _ 



P.O. Box 869, Baldwin Road 

Arden, North Carolina 28704 

(704) 684-9044 

Re-ink any fabric ribbon 


Mac Inker 

Extremely simple operation, with 
built in electric motor. We 
support over 750 types of printers 
- cartridge, spool, harmonica, or 
zip pack type. Most MAC 
INKER(s) cost less than $60.00. 
(Add $3.00 for UPS shippping 
anywhere in the US). 

Use your MAC INKER to re-ink 
your dry cartridges (for less than 
5 cents in ink) and watch the 
improvement in print-out quality. 
Our residue-less, lubricated, dot- 
matrix ink yields a darker print 
than most new ribbons. Or get 
any of our 6 basic ink colors: 
brown, blue, red, green, yellow, 
purple and use MAC INKER to 
CARTRIDGES. We have uninked 
cartridges. Load the cartridge on 
MAC INKER, ink in the desired 
color, and re-ink when 

Most cartridges can be used 
almost indefinitely, if ribbon is 
regularly re-inked, kept moist and 
lubricated so that the fabric does 
not fray. Some customers have 
reported 80 re-inkings of the 
same cartridge. 

As of February 85, we have over 
30,000 MAC INKER(s) in the field, 
in 5 continents (220V motors 
available). MAC INKER has been 
reviewed, approved and flattered 
in most magazines and even in 
the NEW YORK TIMES and the 

Order toll free 1-800-547-3303 

or ask for free, detailed brochure. Dealers 
inquiries welcome. 


6415 SW Canyon Court 

Suite #10 

Portland, Oregon 97221 

(503) 297-2321 (24 hour line) 

September 83 

nnicai rorun 

by Tom Enright 
More Juki features 

Several letters have come in detail- 
ing problems some of our users 
have been having with the special 
characters on Juki printwheels. 
Quite a few of you have had trouble 
with the WordStar User Patches 
(APQ, APW, ape, and APR) causing 
your left margin to be offset one 
character to the right after each 

This situation comes about from 
Juki's Diablo 630 compatibility. 
WordStar makes certain assump- 
tions about a Diablo 630 printer. 
What it assumes is that User 
Patches 1 through 4 will only be 
used for accent characters. An 
accent character is one that is 
printed above another character to 
indicate special pronunciation. 

The result is that when Word- 
Star sends one of these commands 
to a Diablo 630, it sends a back- 
space and then the code for the 
special character. Both WordStar 
and the printer are aware of what 
has happened and take the situa- 
tion into account in their margin 
calculations. The Juki does the 
same thing. 

A problem comes about when 
something other than an accent 
character is defined as one of the 
user patches (User 1 through User 
4). If you try to use the print-code to 
print a stand-alone special char- 
acter, the special character is 
printed on top of the preceding 
character. If you try to get tricky 
and put a space in front of the spe- 
cial character, either WordStar or 
the printer gets confused about 
where the left margin is supposed 
to be. 

You get similar results on the 
Juki and on a Diablo 630. It isn't 
exactly the same result — the mar- 
gin error is in the opposite direction 
on a Diablo — but it still loses track 
of the left margin. 

You can get around this problem 
in a couple of ways. The first way 
would be to go through the com- 
plete "Specialty Printer" installa- 
tion process from scratch, defining 
every feature of your printer as 
WINSTALL asks for it. 

The other method would be to 
leave your printer selection as 
Diablo 630 and reserve the "User 
Patches" for accent marks. Other 
special characters use a normal 
character space that could be 
assigned to Phantom Space or 
Phantom Rubout. 

The last alternative would be to 
assign command sequences for 
stand-alone characters to a special 
keystroke with a key redefinition 
program. Escape sequences for 
special characters are short 
enough to assign to a key on your 
numeric pad with CONFIG. 

More WordStar 

Our last issue's Technical Forum 
included a WordStar patch to elimi- 
nate the annoying WordStar 
graphic screen. Well, one of our 
readers has taken that idea one step 
further. Mark Frank of Birming- 
ham, Alabama has come up with a 
patch to skip both the graphics 
screen and the version sign-on 

This patch jumps past the first 
two screens that you would nor- 
mally see when invoking WordStar 
and puts you directly at the Open- 
ing Menu. As with the patch from 
last month, this one is for CP/M 
WordStar 3.3 only. At the same 
location where I had you insert 
three NOP instructions, Frank has 
put a C3 27 3D, which means to 
jump to address 3D27. 

Our standard instructions for 
patching apply to this procedure. 
Never patch your working or mas- 
ter diskette. Always patch a copy of 

your working diskette and test the 
new version thoroughly before 
transferring it to your working dis- 
kette. In the following procedure, 
your entries are in boldface type. 
Assuming that you have both DDT 
and WordStar on the diskette in 
drive A, the steps for installing this 
patch are: 




4600 0100 


3CF4 CD C3 

3CF5 2 A 27 

3CF6 IB 3D 

3CF7 CD . (Yes, a period) 

GO (G zero, not GO.) 

Warm Boot 


I can foresee only one instance in 
which this patch might become 
inadvisable. If you work with more 
than one version of WordStar on a 
disk, you could accidentally use 
the wrong version after installing 
this patch. On my WordStar work- 
ing disk are three different versions 
of WordStar 3.3: one for a parallel 
dot-matrix printer, one for a serial 
daisywheel printer, and one for test- 
ing new patches. 

While each version has a differ- 
ent name, each one also has a differ- 
ent message on the sign-on screen. 
Since I can patch the terminal mes- 
sage for whatever I want it to say, 
my patch-testing version signs on 
with "Experimental Patches" as 
the assigned terminal. The other 
two versions, for different printers, 
sign on with the printer name and 
model number. I've come to depend 
on that information to tell me that I 
didn't inadvertently invoke the 
wrong WordStar file. 

If you regularly use more than 
one customized version of Word- 

84 Profiles 

Copyright © 1985 Tom Enright All rights reserved. 

Star, you may want to think twice 
before doing this patch. But, if you 
use only one version of WordStar, 
this patch can save you some time. 

Warped video 

I've had several letters from users 
who complain that lines of text on 
their screens are tilted. That is, the 
lines are higher at one end than the 
other end. There is a cure for this 
(other than learning to type with 
your head tilted to the side). 

On the neck of the CRT is a white 
plastic collar with coils of fine wire 
in it. This collar controls how lines 
are squared on the screen. The only 
thing keeping this collar in adjust- 
ment is one clamp. It's a simple 
procedure to loosen the clamp and 
rotate the collar until the display is 

The only problem is that this 
adjustment is easiest to make 
when the computer is on and a test 
pattern of lines is on the screen. 
This means putting your hand 
inside the computer right next to 
some rather high voltage while 
making the adjustment. The screw 
holding the clamp in place is also 
invariably facing the wrong direc- 
tion to reach easily with a screw- 
driver. Unless you are experienced 
at this type of work, leave this 
adjustment to a technician. 

If you absolutely insist on per- 
forming this adjustment yourself, 
buy Kaypro's Dealer Reference 
Manual. The adjustment sequence 
is detailed in the section on CRT 
adjustments. And remember to 
remove any rings or watches before 
trying this— that is, unless you like 
having a ring melted while it's still 
on your finger. 

Juki ribbon finale 

We've also been getting piles of let- 
ters from Juki owners who have 
come up with their own solutions to 
ribbon problems. Many of the solu- 
tions entail bending thin sheet 
metal parts in one direction or 
another. I realize how much satis- 
faction a person gets by solving this 
kind of a problem, but we cannot 
publish fixes that require bending 
parts. So far the fixes that we've 
received involve bending one of 
four different parts, too many to 
select from by mail. 

The other side of the coin on all 
these ribbon fixes is — why should 
they be necessary? Modifying a 
piece of equipment to suit your own 
requirements is one thing, but 
having to modify it so it will work in 
the first place is unacceptable. 
When you consider the price tag on 
these things, shouldn't they work 
right from the start? □ 


'I've finished my homework for the next seven years.' 



— Binders 

As a subscriber, you are entitled to 
purchase this top quality grey and 
blue vinyl covered binder that holds 
1 2 issues of your magazine and gives 
complete protection at a special 
price of only $12.95. The binder 
opens flat for quick, easy reference 
and metal rods hold publication in 
place without punching holes. 

Name . 


. State . 


D Check □ Visa D MasterCard a COD 

Card No. 


Exp. Date . 

Profiles Binders 

£12.95 . 


Postage & Handling $2.00 
Total S 


13901 Harbour Place 

Prospect, KY 40059 





Do you have a new product, new 
machine or new factory? 
Based on input variables, you can 

• 10 Yr. Income Statements, Balance Sheets 

• Allows For Bank Loans, Interest, Repay't 

• Depreciation, ACRS 

• Cash Flow, Discounted Cash Flow, Net 
Present Value, Discounted Payback Period, 
Internal Rate Of Return 

• Break-even Analysis 

• Twenty-Two Ratios 

Specify KAYPRO® 2, 4 or 10 

(Illinois Residents Add 6% Sales Tax) 
Send Check For $289.00, or Write To: 



September 85 


NFL& USFL Football 

Handicapping Program 

PURPOSE: Do-it-yourself Program. For 
Kaypro users interested in predicting the 
outcome of professional football games. 

HOW IT WORKS: Each week, enter the 
stats required by the SMART-PIKformula. 
SMART-PIK projects the number of points 
that each team is likely to score (and allow) 
against its next opponent. 
RESULTS: Awinning record, againstthe 
pointspread, in each of the last 4 Pro 
Football seasons. (1983 and 1984, NFL 
and USFL. More than 500 selections.) 

QUICK & EASY: Required stats are ob- 
tainable from any newspaper. I/O takes 
about 2 hours per week. (Also, data main- 
tenance via mail or modem is an available 

easily vary the SMART-PIK selection 
determinants. Further experimentation 
may produce still better results. 
Developed by Marty Mendelsohn and Jim 
Thompson of Las Vegas Kaypro Users Group. 
$49.00 includes postage and handling. 
Specify what kind of Kaypro you have. MS 
DOS okay, too. 

Phone or Write for Free Brochure 




• " V '. ,■ . v 

VU*MOR 19.95 

CLIP*MOR 4.95 


BEE'MOR ^*„ 
911 Western Ave. #406 £fij^^^ 
Seattle, WA 98104 (€(3/ 
206-467-0630 ' ' 

Terms: M/C, VISA, COD, Check. Tax 7.8% 
for WA Residents. Kaypro is a registered 
Trademark of Kaypro Corp. 

Marty Mendelsohn Associates 

3807 Central Park Dr. #4 • Las Vegas, NV89109 
Tel. (702) 737-6256 


A s 


by Susan Hyman 

The following new product list- 
ings are not reviews and should 
not be considered endorsements 
of tested products. 

To be considered for publica- 
tion in New Products, all press 
releases and product information 
should be sent to: New Products 
Editor, do PROFILES Magazine, 
Kaypro Corporation, P.O. Box N, 
DelMar, CA 9201 4. Releases must 
state specific Kaypro compati- 
bility and the products' prices. 
Senxi black-and-white photos if 

Personal computer note- 

This customized three-ring binder 
system, called The Computer Com- 
panion, holds all computer essen- 
tials in one place. More than 20 
special forms, labels, tabs and 
pockets are included to help users 
keep track of help cues, commands, 
database search methods, and 
hardware and software documen- 
tation, among other information. 

The Computer Companion can 
be used to transport disks, refer- 
ence materials, and paperwork 
between home and office. 

The 5 1/2" by 8 1/2" notebook is 
available in brown, black, wine, 
gray, silver or cranberry vinyl. 

$39.95. Alfred Publishing Com- 
pany Inc., P.O. Box 5964, Sherman 
Oaks, CA 91413 (800) 292-6122 or 
inCA: (800)821-6083. 

Users' group catalog and 
software library 

The New York Amateur Computer 
Club (NYACC) has published a pub- 
lic domain software catalog for PC- 
compatible machines like the 
Kaypro 16and286i. 

The catalog, which covers the 
PC/Blue Library, contains articles 
on public domain software and 
users' groups, a diskette volume 
list, a program index to 19 topics, a 

diskette table of contents, an alpha- 
betical index of files, and descrip- 
tions of commonly used filename 

New York Amateur Computer 
Club, P.O. Box 106, Church Street 
Station, New York, NY 10008. 

Math game 

Cosmic Math is a game that uses 
graphics to teach math. It is a 
space adventure game, using a 
spaceship traveling the galaxy and 
aliens behind you asking questions 
on math. There are versions for 
addition, subtraction, multiplica- 
tion and division. Four different 
skill levels are available, including 
grades 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, and a fraction 
game for grades 5 and up. Users 
must have machines with graphics 

$14.95. Kaypro 2, 4, and 10. 
Applied Software Products, P.O. 
Box 292, Glassboro, NJ 08028. 

Aviation route planning 

Automated Route Consulting Sys- 
tem™ is a route planning system for 
pilots that provides direct routes to 
destination airports. 

The type of route given depends 
on the navigation system the pilot 
.has available (i.e. VOR, RNAV, 
LORAN C, Omega and more). The 
pilot enters the departure and des- 
tination airports, specifies the type 
of flight plan desired— the com- 
puter does the rest. 

All the "navaids" used for navi- 
gation are stored on the system 
disk, and the user also has the 
option of storing up to 400 airports. 
A list of all the navaids used, plus 
waypoint descriptions, is provided. 

The package will perform route 
planning, update navaid and air- 
port files, and list the navaid and 
airport files to the printer. 

$49. Kaypro 2, 4, 10 and 16. 
Miller Flight Planning Inc., 404 

86 Profiles 

North Gardenia, Broken Arrow, OK 

Computer equity kit 

This grassroots kit, entitled "Pro- 
gramming Equity into Computer 
Education," is designed to help 
ensure equal participation for girls, 
minority, disabled and low-income 
students in computer courses. 

Published by PEER (Project on 
Equal Education Rights) and its 
newly formed National Center for 
Computer Equity, the kit is an 
answer to an earlier PEER report 
that documented a consistent pat- 
tern of inequity 

Aimed at parents, educators and 
community leaders, the kit is an 
assortment of tools to help them 
work for equity in their local 
schools. It provides: 

• sample interview questions for 
getting data on school policies, 
practices, and allocations regard- 
ing computers; 

• interview questions which elicit 
data on the perceptions of teachers, 
students and administrators 
regarding access and other equity- 
related issues; 

• sample forms and instructions for 
analysis of enrollment patterns by 
sex, by racial or ethnic groups, and 
for disabled students; 

• an annotated listing of resources 
(articles, organizations and pro- 
jects) on computer equity. 

It was developed and published 
with the financial support of the 
American Express Foundation, 
Aetna Life and Casualty Founda- 
tion, the Edward W Hazen Founda- 
tion, the Rockefeller Family Fund, 
the Carnegie Corporation, and the 
Ford Foundation. 

Cost of this kit is $9.95 prepaid 
and it can be ordered from PEER. 

PEER, 1413 KSt.,NW 9th Floor, 
Washington DC, 20005 (202) 


Now you can 
spend six months 

on research 

without spending 

six months 

on re-sear 

VJet to the bottom of your notes 
with Notebook II — the database 
manager for text. 

Use Notebook lis built-in text 
editor to take all the notes you 
want, or read in files from your 
word processor. Then, in an instant, 
reorganize or retrieve any informa- 
tion and print in any format. 

Notebook II manages up to 50 
fields and ten pages of text per 
record, and as many records as 
your disk can hold. It is menu- 
driven, with instantly available 
"help" screens. 

So think about it. You can spend 
hundreds of hours on re-search, 
or $189 on Notebook II. 

Find out more. Call us at 
(415) 947-1000 or toll-free at 
(800) 826-2222. Or write Pro/Tern 
Software, Inc., 2363 Boulevard 
Circle, Walnut Creek, CA 94595. 

Notebook ll'by 


Notebook II runs under MS/PCD0S 2 or 3 with 256K 
RAM. Notebook I is available for CP/M systems. 

September 87 

Back Issues 

Some back issues of PROFILES are 
available. If you live in the United 
States, we'll send you the desired 
issue(s) for $4.00 each, including 
postage and handling. Enclose 
your name and address along with 
a check or money order payable to 
Kaypro Corporation and mail to: 


Attn: Back Issues 

P.O. Box 2889 

Del Mar, CA 92014 

Highlights of past issues include: 

September '84 

• LOGO on the Kaypro 

• Education with PILOT 

October '84 

• World of online databases 

• Shopper's guide to modems 

November '84 

• First look at DataStar 

• Freelance programming 

February '85 

• Use a modem — go to jail? 

• Kaypro 16 preview 

• Finding public domain 

March '85 

• Unique applications 

• Computerized speechwriting 

• Statistical software roundup 

April '85 

• Famous users 

• dBASE II and the real-time 

• Tax prep software 

May '85 

• Alvin Toffler interview 

• MBASIC marvels 

• Telecommuting 

June '85 

• Micros in the Third World 

• Perfect Series ver. 2.0 review 

• Tracking the "desaparecidos" 

July /August '85 

• $100,000/yr. freelancing 

• Customizing WordStar 

• Hardware review of 286i 

vc; v v 


Data SpOOfer pulse dialing and is self-testing. It 
The Advanced Data System spooler comes in an aluminum case with a 
offers up to 256K of RAM for data two-year warranty, 
transfer of scientific and business $349. Morrison & Dempsey 
processing applications. The Communications, 19209 Par- 
buffer/interface unit, which comes thenia St., Suite D, Northridge, CA 
with 128K and may be upgraded, 91324 (818) 993-0195. 
works well for EDP, spreadsheet 

and accounting printouts, telecom- Tenant billing software 

munications and local area net- This package is tailor-made for 

work configurations. marinas, airports, mobilehome 

The stand-alone spooler installs parks, or any other business that 
with two cable connections and is has tenants paying rent and/or 
easily transferred from one hard- other constant charges. The Auto- 
ware configuration to another. A matic Tenant Billing Program will 
digital readout displays memory in bill recurring fees, plus add in 
use or number of copies remaining optional miscellaneous charges 
to be processed. Two fingertip con- such as utilities. The program is a 
trols allow interrupt, resume and form of accounts receivable corn- 
clearing of buffer memory. bined with automatic billing. 

$600. Consolink Corporation, The software will display cur- 

1275 Sherman Dr., Longmont, CO rent account status and show ten- 

80501 (303) 651-2014 or (800) ant information such as boat (or 

525-6705. other) length, name and license/ 

registration. A full range of trans- 

300/1200 modem action journals and reports, includ- 

The completely Hayes-compatible ing an interactive vacancy list and 

SmarTEAM modem has auto-dial delinquency report, come with the 

and auto-answer features, as well program 

as a built-in speaker with volume $1,250. Kaypro 2, 4, 10, 16 and 

control. It comes with 20 com- 286i. A demonstration disk is avail- 

mands, five responses, eight LED able for $25. Office Computer Sys- 

indicators, and dip switches. terns, 5627A Paradise Dr., Corte 

The modem is Bell 103/2 12A Madera, CA 94925 (415) 927-9844. 

compatible, supports touch-tone or □ 


Specializing in Data Communications 



DS1 200SMT: Internal for KayPro's, 300-1 200 baud 

Hayes compatible smartmodem with software $349.95 $299.95 

DS300SMT: Internal for KayPro's 300 baud Hayes 

compatible smartmodem with software $199.95 $169.95 


VOLKSMODEM 1200:300-1200 baud, Hayes compatible 

smartmodem, auto-dial / auto-answer (needs cable) $299.95 $219.95 

MARK X: 300 baud, Hayes compatible smartmodem, 

auto-dial / auto-answer $169.95 $115.95 

CALL NOW TOLL FREE: 1-800-922-2329 

1 1 56 Amidon • Wichita, Kansas • 67203 

88 Profiles 







A O 



Page No. Advertiser 

Page No. 

Accent Graphics 82 

Advent Products 66,67 

Alpine Data 12 

Arizona Plastics 13 

AutoSoft 18 

BizProf Software 85 

Borland International 90 

CDE Software 21 

C. Atkinson Programs 19 

Central Computer Proaucts . . 23,24,25 

Chaucer Software 2 

Civil Computing 11 

Computer Friends 83 

Computer Professionals, Inc 51 

Computerware 32 

Controllea Printout Devices 83 

Cuesta Systems 39 

Custom Program House 13 

Eau-Kids Software 82 

Financial Track Systems 73 

Flo Systems, Inc 57 

Frank-Art 58 

H & E Computronics Back Cover 

Hornby, Inc 85 

Huntington Data Systems 56 

Hurd Computer Systems 11 

Integratea Computer Systems 89 

James River Group 5 

Kamasoff 19 

Kaypro General Store Insert 

MS & P Resources 89 

Martin Menaelsohn Assoc 86 

Micro Art Programmers 8 

Micro Cornucopia , 76,77 

Micro Solutions 7 

Microcomputer Systems Consultants 


Microsphere 1 

MicroTech, Inc 86 

Multi-Tech Systems . Inside Front Cover 

Mycroft Labs Inside Back Cover 

Newstar Software 8 

Ohio Plastics 37 

Omnicom 88 

PeopleTalk Associates 30,31 

Pomerleau Computing Systems 89 

Practical Business Software 58 

Pro/Tern Software 87 

PROFILES Magazine 15 

Resource Software International 4 

Rocky Mountain Software Systems 40 

SOS Computing 39 

Softcraft, Inc 9 

Spectre Technologies 65 

Stanton Software 17 

Techware 18 

Telion Software 74 

Thorne EMI 80,81 

Wall Street Journal 38 

Walonick Associates 72 

WestWind Computer 75 

Woodsmith Software 12 

Writing Consultants 37,72 

Xpert Software 73 

This ad index is provided as an additional 
service. The publisher does not assume any 
liability for errors or omissions. 

Hub Reinforcing Rings 

Tyvek Sleeves 


Write Protect Tabs 

Meets or Exceeds ANSI Standards 

Lifetime Replacement Guarantee 

100% certified Error-Free 


(quality media at wholesale prices) 
Now you can buy Name Brand 
Quality Diskettes at Wholesale Prices 


SSDD - $1.49 DSDD - $189 



order toll free Integrated Computer Systems 

1-800-851-2753 , „„ ., , _ , , , 

iLLiNOisfcall collect) ' 29 North Randolph Street 

309-833-1137 Macomb, Illinois 61455 


Finally, a program that lets you take 
notes anywhere on a lap-size comput- 
er — and transfer those files directly to 
your Kaypro or PC-compatible home 
computer. Hardwire® makes it sim- 
ple, makes it fast. 

Hardwire® is menu-driven for sim- 
plicity. It moves data at speeds up to 
19.2K baud! And it works with any 
combination of Kaypros, PC-compati- 
bles and NEC, Radio Shack and Ep- 
son Geneva lap-size computers. All you 
need to add is a cable. 

Hardwire® program and easy-to- 
follow manual: 



Specify CP/M or MS-DOS. Or get 
both versions for just $59.95. 

VISA and MasterCard accepted. 

To order or for information, 

call or write: 


SYSTEMS of Hyde Park 

5634 S. Maryland Ave. 
Chicago, IL 60637 (312) 667-2075 

Call us for information 
on other lap-size computers. 





This program calculates estimated current value 
for real property, based on a variety of user 
specified inputs. Allows user created data files for 
multiple property tracking. Designed especially for 
KAYPRO owners, but runs on other CP/M-flO compatibles. 
Runs as .COM file: nothing else to buy. No printer 
required. Complete documentation on disk. Formatted 

for KAYPRO II (SSDD) unless otherwise specified. 

Only $14.95 postpaid (in USA only) 

(NC residents add $.70 sales tax) 
Check or MO only - sorry, no COO' s or credit sales. 

PO Box 16032 

September 89 


Borland Introduces 

Laws That Work Like Magic. Whether considering 

technological excellence, 

areas such as pricing, 

not copy-protection, 

licensing agreements, 

site licenses, 60 day 

money-back guarantee I 

— Borland is clearly 

recognized as the 

software industry 

leader. The following 

three laws of" Turbo 

Dynamics"™ exemplify 

our pledge for excellence. 

or innovation in 






we will always offer not 
copy-protected versions of our 
software. Also, our licensing 
agreement is now so simple 
that even a child can under- 
stand it. 



Borland products are known 
to be fast, powerful and to 
deliver an incredible price per- 
formance ratio. We only believe 
in absolutely superb software 
at rock bottom prices. 

Turbo Dynamics Applies to Turbo Pascal. 

Borland's Pascal family of products is growing 
* 3, v ■_ by leaps and bounds. 


RD l/Wx 


This third law is actually a 
first in the industry! We are so 
sure that you will love our 
software that all of our pro- 
ducts now come backed with 
a 60 day money-back 
guarantee. No questions asked 


rd. With more than 350,0(10 

users worldwide Turbo Pascal is the indus- 
try s de facto standard. Tirbo Pascal is 
praised by more engineers, hobbyists, 
students and professional programmers 
than any other development environment 
in the history of microcomputing. And yet, 
Turbo Pascal is simple and tun to use. Free 
spreadsheet included on every Turbo disk with ready-to- 
compile source code. Options: we offer die exciting Binary 
Coded Decimal (BCD) option for your business applications as 
well as an 8087 option for your number-crunching applica- 
tions at a very low charge. Please refer to die coupon. 
Portability. Turbo Pascal is available today for most computers 
running PC-DOS, MS-DOS, CP/M-80 or CP/M-86. Jelf 
Buntemanti. PC Magazine: "In its simplicity it achieves an 
elegance that no other language compiler has ever displayed." 


The Turbo Database Toolbox is We perfect 
complement to Turbo Pascal. It contains a 
complete library of Pascal procedures that 

■ •■; ;•„ - .■■.■■.'■ ;■"' ' : : ■;; data 
,-.■: ■ r ■ ,; ;'• ,''■;:'-.. - :, ' ••■!:. ■", It's 
! :'.'.. I 1 jj I '; !j j ':,'■■ al |j| !jj§ 

the beginning programmer the expert's 
edge Gel started right awa/: tree database! 
Included on every Toolbox disk is the source code to t working 
data base which demonstrates how powerful and easy to use 

our search system, lurbo-Ac ess really is Modify ii to suit 
your individual needs or iusi compile it and run 



4585 Statu, Valle} Drive. Scotts Valley CA 05066 
Phor.mO.Sii>SMiKi Telex 172373 

Copyright 1985 Borland International BI-1011 

High resolution i 

window management lor the IBM PC. The 

'lurbo Graphix Toolbox will give even a 
beginning programmer the experts edge. 
It's a complete library of Pascal procedures 
ar.d functions. Tools that will allowyouto 
draw and hatch pie charts, bar charts, 
circles, rectangles and a full range of 
geometric shapes. Procedures that will save and restore 
graphic images to and from disk. And much, mucfi, more. 
You may incorporate part or all of these tools in your 
programs and yet we won't charge you any royalties. Best of 
all. these functions and procedures come complete with 
commented source code on disk ready to compile. 

You can now join 
hundreds of thou- 
sands of users 
and enter the 
world of Turbo 
Pascal program- 
ming. And 
remember, all 
three laws of 
Ihrbo Dynamics 
apply to all Borland products. 

TURBO TUTOR" $34.95 

From start to finish in 300 pages. Turbo 
Ihtor is for everyone from novice to expert. 
Even if you've never programmed before 
Turbo Tutor will get you started right away. 
A must. You'll find die source code for all 
die examples in the book on the accompany- 
ing disk ready to compile. Turbo Tutor 
might be the only reference on Pascal and 
programming you'll ever need. 


for the deaf* 

,--v5^-s"'' ,8MZS5 

3«SS 8 c»>*" 33 

pascal 3.0 
Pascal w/en8' 
Pascal w/BCD 

69 95 . 
S 1 09.90 - 
$109.90 - 

Pascal"'" BCD 

pascal*' 8087 $124.95— - 

Turbo Database Tfcgfc 

t 54.95 - 

Turbo GrapW * ^ g 5 

Turbo Tutor shippW 




Mycroft Labs Announces 
a follow up to their enormously popular Suprterm to MITE Upgrade 

A Super Deal on an 

K Replacement 

The $95.00 COMPAT Direct Disk Interchange 
Software System for $29.95.* Exclusively for 

KAYPRO owners. 

I'M A 


For a. limited time, Mycroft 
Labs will be offering MFDISK 
owners a copy of fl"; 
a substantially reduced price. 
Each MFDISK owner will be 
allowed to purchase one copy 
of at the reduced 
price of $29.95 + $2.55 post- 
age and handling. With COM- 
you can Read, Write and 
Format over 60 different CP/M 
and MSDOS Disks (30 on 
single sided systems) on your 
Kaypro Computer. COMPAT 
allows you to change the per- 
sonality of either or both drives 
and interchange foreign for- 
mat CP/M disks with native 
ones. In addition, al- 
lows you to initialize blank 
disks to any supported CP/M 
or MSDOS format. And when 

^CiXaX »o perform"?? Give Your Computer Multiple Personalitie 

rectories of, and transfer files 

to or from MSDOS disks, and a powerful replacement for PIP, called M YCOPY. COMPAT is also available for Sanyo 1 000 

1150, 1250, Zenith-100, and other popular CP/M based computers. 

0SB OR /V£/ 

j ; 

jf MicroSolutions UniForm software package on Kaypro Computers. 

Mycroft Labs, Inc., P.O. Box 6045, Tallahassee, FL 32314 

□ Yes, I would like to upgrade my copy of MFDISK to COMPAT 



Enclosed is $32.50 (which includes shipping, or $34.00 for COD orders). 
Florida residents add applicable state Sales Tax. 


Street Address: 


Phone: (904) 385-1141 
Payment Method 


Available for Kaypro Models: 2/83, 2/84, 4/83, 4/84, 2x and 10. 

□ Check 


Card # 

Exp. Date: 

□ COD 

□ MasterCard 

Offer Expires September 30, 1985 

KAYPRO is a Registered Trademark of KAYPRO Corporator 

Introducing the Most Powerful 
Business Software Ever! 


TheVERSABusiNESS" Series 

Each VERSABUSINESS module can be purchased and used independently, 
or can be linked in any combination to form a complete, coordinated business system. 


VERSAReceivables™ is a complete menu-driven accounts receivable, invoicing, and 
monthly statement-generating system. It keeps track of all information related to who 
owes you or your company money, and can provide automatic billing for past due ac- 
counts. VerSAReceIVABLES" prints all necessary statements, invoices, and summary 
reports and can be linked with VERSALEDGER II'" and' VERSAlNVENTORY'*. 


VersaPayables™ is designed to keep track of current and aged payables, keeping you 
in touch with all information regarding how much money your company owes, and to 
whom. VERSA PAYABLES™ maintains a complete record on each vendor, prints checks, 
check registers, vouchers, transaction reports, aged payables reports, 'vendor reports, 
and more. With VERSAPAYABLES™, you can even let your computer automatically select 
which vouchers are to be paid. 


VERSA PAYROLL" is a powerful and sophisticated, but easy to use payroll system that 
keeps track of all government-required payroll information. Complete employee records 
are maintained, and all necessary payroll calculations are performed automatically, with 
totals displayed on screen for operator approval. A payroll can be run totally, automati- 
cally, or the operator can intervene to prevent a check from being printed, or to alter 
information on it. If desired, totals may be posted to the VERSALEDGER IF system. 


VERSA Inventory™ is a complete inventory control system that gives you instant access 
to data on any item. VERSAlNVENTORY™ keeps track of all information related to what 
items are in stock, out of stock, on backorder, etc., stores sales and pricing data, alerts 
you when an item falls below a preset reorder point, and allows you to enter and print 
invoices directly or to link with the VERSA RECEIVABLES™ system. VERSAlNVENTORY™ prints 
all needed inventory listings, reports of items below reorder point, inventory value re- 
ports, period and year-to date sales reports, price lists, inventory checklists, etc. 




VERSALEDGER II™ is a complete accounting system that grows as your business 
grows. VersaLedger II™ can be used as a simple personal checkbook register, 
expanded to a small business bookkeeping system or developed into a large 
corporate general ledger system without any additional software. 

• VersaLedger II™ gives you almost unlimited storage capacity 

(300 to 10,000 entries per month, depending on the system), 

• stores all check and general ledger information forever, 

• prints tractor-feed checks, 

• handles multiple checkbooks and general ledgers, 

• prints 17 customized accounting reports including check registers 
balance sheets, income statements, transaction reports, account 
listings, etc. 

VersaLedger 11™ comes with a professionally-written 160 page manual de- 
signed for first-time users. The VERSALEDGER II™ manual will help you become 
quickly familiar with VERSALEDGER 11™, using complete sample data files 
supplied on diskette and more than 50 pages of sample printouts. 


Every VERS A BUSINESS 1 " module is guaranteed to outperform all other competitive systems, 
and at a fraction of their cost. If you are not satisfied with any VERSABUSINESS™ module, you 
may return it within 30 days for a refund. Manuals for any VERSABUSINESS'" module may be 
purchased for $25 each, credited toward a later purchase of that module. 
All CP/M-based Computers must be equipped with Microsoft BASIC 
(MBAS1C or BASIC-80) 

To Order: 

Write or call Toll-free (800) 431-2818 
(N.Y.S. residents call 914-425-1535) 

* add $3 for shipping in UPS areas 

* add $4 for C.O.D. or non-UPS areas 


All prices and specifications subject to change / Delivery subject to availability. 

* add $5 to CANADA or MEXICO 
1 add proper postage elsewhere